Ch24- Stomach Anatomy ALL

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1

Stomach

organ storage tank, mechanical breakdown of food

2

Stomach

organ chemical digestion of proteins by acids and enzymes

3

Stomach

organ production of intrinsic factor

4

Stomach

organ digesta exits as chyme; viscous acidic fluid

5

Cardia

mucus from this protects esophagus in stomach

6

Fundus and Body

location for gastric secretion of acids and enzymes in stomach (2)

7

Body

mixing tank in stomach

8

Pyloric sphincter

this regulates release of chyme in stomach

9

Pylorus

this structure of stomach contains mucous and gastrin secretion in stomach

10

Rugae

muscle allows expansion in stomach

11

Chyme

liquid product of digestion, acidic fluid

12

1.5 L

stomach daily gastric juice amount

13

HCL

parietal cells of stomach secrete

14

Pepsinogen

chief cells of stomach secrete

15

Gastrin

enteroendocrine G cells (hormones) secrete

16

Hormones

what type of cell is enteroendocrine G cells in stomach?

17

Simple columnar epithelium

tissue composed of goblet cells in stomach secrete alkaline (base) mucus

18

Alkaline (base) Mucus

goblet cells in stomach secrete

19

Gastric pits; goblet cells

simple columnar ET in stomach is surround by __ ___ filled with ____ ___

20

storage tank, mechanical breakdown, chemical digestion, intrinsic factor production, digesta leaves as chyme

stomach mechanisms (5)

21

Intrinsic factor

A glycoprotein by the mucosa of the stomach and intestines that is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12.

22

Intrinsic factor

substance need for vitamin B12 absorption

23

Gastric

hormone that stimulates activity of gastric glands

24

Parietal and Chief

gastric glands are dominated by these 2 types of cells that form gastric juice..

25

Corrosion

destruction by chemical action

26

Tight junction

epithelial cells of the stomach form

27

HCL and Water

plasma membrane of stomach is impermeable to (2)

28

Neck Mucous

these cell are know as quick replacement cell of damaged epithelial

29

Mucosal barrier

layer protects stomach against self digestion and corrosion

30

Mucus Neck, Parietal, Chief, Enteroendocrine (G-cells)

secretory cells of stomach (4)

31

HCL

kills microorganism, denatures proteins and inactivates enzyme

32

HCL

breaks down plant cell wall and CT in meat

33

HCL

digestive enzyme that activates pepsin

34

Gastrin

stimulates secretion of parietal and chief cells

35

1.5-2

pepsin is most effective at what pH level?

36

Somatostatin

hormone that inhibits release of gastrin

37

Salivary Amylase (parotid)

enzyme break down CHO, include gland

38

lingual lipase

enzyme break down lipids, include gland

39

Nutrients

what doesnt the stomach absorb?

40

impermeable

the stomach is ___ to water

41

Protein

what type of food does the stomach start chemical digestion?

42

Innervation

the neural or electrical arousal of an organ or muscle or gland

43

cephalic, gastric, intestinal

3 overlapping phases of stomach controlled by nervous innervation and hormone

44

Cephalic

phase begins at sight, smell, taste, and thought of food

45

Vagus

this nerve activates submucosal plexus

46

Submucosal Plexus

this nerve plexus stimulates mucous cells, chief, parietal, and g cells

47

Mucous, Chief, Parietal, G cells

the submucosal plexus stimulates which secretory cells of the stomach?

48

Gastric

this phase is controlled by nervous innervation and hormones

49

Submucosal Plexus

the cephalic phase is controlled by what plexus?

50

Distention, increase pH, partly digested protein, histamine effects

the gastric phase is initaited by what? (4)

51

Distention

act of expanding

52

Stretch repectors and Release of Histamine

what is stimulates when the stomach distends? (2) (gastric phase)

53

HCL

release of histamine in the stomach stimulates what?

54

Expand

presence of histamine cause the stomach to do what?

55

Gastrin

presence of partly digeted proteins stimulate what enzyme secretion?

56

Chemoreceptor

an increase in pH signals what receptor response? (gastric phase)

57

Lamina propria

histamine is stored in what layer of the stomach?

58

Histamine

cell binds to receptor on partietal cells and stimulates HCL acid secretion

59

Cheif cell

pepsinogen (hormone form)

60

Paratiel cell

HCL

61

Intestinal

phase begins when chyme first enters the small intestine

62

Intestinal

phase controls rate of gastric emptying by temporary inhibition

63

Intestinal

during this phase the duodenal distented and inhibits gastric contraction (neural response_

64

Pyloric

during the intestinal phase the neural responce promotes this contraction (stomach part)

65

CCK & GIP

Lipids and CHO during intestinal phase stimulate what? (2)

66

Secretin

hormone that small intestine secretes to stimulate pancreas to release pancreatic juice

67

Secretin

Drop in pH stimulates what?
(intestinal phase)

68

Gastric Inhibitory Peptide

aka GIP

69

Cholecystokinin

aka CCK

70

CCK

hormone inhibits gastric secretion of *acid and enzymes*

71

GIP

hormone inhibits gastric secretion and *reduces rate and force of gastric contractions*

72

Secretin

hormone secrected in duodenum inhibits parietal cells and chief cells in stomach

73

6-7 meter

how long is the small instestine?

74

90%

how much absorption occurs in the small intestine?

75

Duodenum

this part of small intestine is .25m long and sits in the reptroperitoneal cavity

76

Duodenum

part of small intesine precieve pancreatic juice and bile - "mixing bowl"

77

Jejunum

part of small intestine 2.5 m long and has the largest suface area

78

Jejunum

region of small intestine wher most of chemical digest and nutreint is absorpbed

79

Ileum

part of small intestine is 3.5 m long

80

Ileum

part of small intestine contains peyer patches

81

Gastric Glands

gland that secrete juice ~1.5 L day

82

Mucosal Barrier

protects stomach against self digestion and corrosion

83

Stomach

organ; secretes digestive enzyme and expands

84

Chemical digestion

type of digestion where protein are broken down with HCL and pepsin

85

Pepsin

enzyme breaks apart proteins effect pH 1.5-2

86

HCL

kills microorgaisms

87

Gastric Secretion

controlled by nervous innervation and hormones

88

Cephalic Phase

reflex phase
smell, taste the though to food

89

G cells

gastrin

90

Chief cells

pepsinogen (hormone form)
pepsin (enzyme)

91

Mucous cells

mucus

92

Gastric Phase

stomach distention phase

93

Stomach distention

stimulates stretch receptors

94

Increase in pH

stimulates chemoreceptors

95

Intestinal Phase

controls rate of gastric emptying by temporary inhibition

96

Neural response

duodenal distension inhibits gastric contraction

97

Pancreatic Juice

enzymes (carbohydrase, protesase, lipase) and bicarbonate (keeps pH low in SI) form this

98

Gastric

parietal and chief cells form this acidic juice

99

Parietal cell

intrinsic factor in SI is secreted by

100

Mucous, Chief, Parietal, G Cells

Submucosal plexus in the cephalic phase actives these 4 secretory cells

101

Parietal and Chief

g cells (gastrin) further stimulate these cells

102

Vagus nerve

the submucosal plexus in the cephalic phase is activated by what major nerve

103

Vagus nerve

what major nerve is activated by the CNS in the cephalic phase

104

Submucosal plexus

the vagus nerve in the cephalic phase activates what nerve?

105

Pylorus

glands in _____ region of the stomach secrete mucus and important digestive hormones including gastrin

106

Intestinal Phase

the nerual response for this phase inhibits gastric contraction as duodenal distends then promotes pyloric contract

107

HCL

histamine stimulates

108

Gastric Phase

distention of the stomach stimulates stretch receptors and histamine release during this phase

109

Parietal cells

*local effect* of histamine stimulate
(gastric phase)

110

Gastric phase

-Stomach distention
-Increase pH
-Presence of partly digested proteins
-Local effect of histamine stimulate parietal cells

111

Lamia Propia

histamine in the stomach is stored in this layer

112

Started

protein digestion in the stomach is ___.

113

Salivary Amylase and Lingual Lipase

CHO and lipids permits limited digestion in the stomach by

114

Nutrient absorption, Transport Mechanism, Impermeable to water

what does the stomach not do or have
(3)

115

No

is digestion complete in the stomach?