CH 24- Metabolism

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1

Metabolism

all chemical reactions necessary to maintain life

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Anabolic reaction

synthesis of monomers to polymers

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growth, secretion, storage, maintenance/repair

reason for anabolic reaction (4)

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synthesis

the process of producing a chemical compound

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phosphorylation

phosphate handed from one substrate to another directly yields ATP

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oxidative

type of phosphorylation where majority of ATP's are made

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oxidative

relies on redox reaction to take place

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Catabolism

breakdown of organic substrates, releases energy that can be used to synthesize ATP

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substrate-level phosphorylation

an enzyme uses the energy released by a chemical reaction to transfer a phosphate group to suitable acceptable molecule

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reduced

*NAD+ and FAD+* are _____ when glucose is broken down

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oxidized

*NADH & FADH2* are _____ when they drop off their electrons in the electron transport system (ETS)

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reduced

gain electrons

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oxidized

lose electrons

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Carbohydrate Metabolism

generation of ATP by breaking down CHO

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glycolysis

occurs in cytosol and glucose to 2 pyruvates

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TCA

Kreb cycle, removal of CO2 and high energy electrons

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ETS

utilizes energy from electrons for ATP formation

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Glycolysis

process of breaking apart glucose

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Glycolysis

gluscose molecule split in half forms 2 pyruvates

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Glycolysis

forms 2 ATP by substrate level phosphorylation

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NAD+

glycolysis coenzyme

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Glucose, Cytoplasmic enzymes, ATP and ADP, Inorganic phosphate, NAD+

glycolysis requires (5)

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TCA, Krebs cycle

cycles occurs in mitochondrial matrix (2)

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Oxidative phosphorylation

consumption of oxygen to create ATP

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ATP

substrate level phosphorylation in TCA forms

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ETS

chain of proteins called cytochromes

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pH gradient, generates a voltage gradient

electron energy gradient creates

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rotor (atp synthesis)

membrane for ATP synthase that spins clockwise with H+ flows through the gradient

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rod (atp synthesis)

connects the cylindrical rotor to know and also spines, activation catalytic sites in know

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knob (atp synthesis)

contains catalytic sides that join inorganic phosphate to ADP to make ATP

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ATP needed

locomotion, contraction, intracellular transport, cytokinesis endocytosis, exocytosis

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electron energy gradient

protons cross inner membrane through

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2 ATP

glucose-6-phospate with 2 ADP yields

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ATP

anabolism requires