CH 21- Body Vessels

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1

Venules

collect blood from cap beds

2

Venules

vessel may lack tunica media at small size

3

capacitance vessel

vein that expand easily (~8x arteries)
store blood

4

Vein

vessel has lower blood pressure and thinner walls

5

Veins

vessel has slender tunica media
(vasoconstriction if hemorrhaging)

6

Venous values

vein-folds of tunica intima

7

Venous values

found in venules and medium size veins of limbs

8

venules

smallest venous vessels

9

venous valve

compartmentalize blood in vein; resist weight of blood in section to prevent back flow

10

skeletal muscle

this helps by contracting to assist in venous return

11

Anastomoses

usually found in organs where blood supply is enormously important -heart/brain

12

Anastomoses

interconnections between vessels to ensure a constant blood supply.

13

Arteriovenous

connecting an artery to a vein

14

Arteriovenous

vessel that bypasses blood straight to capillaries; sympathetic control

15

Venous reserve

located in liver skin and bone marrow; plays a role in blood distribution stores blood

16

venous reserve

stores 21% of blood in liver, skin, bone marrow

17

20%

amount of blood stored in venous reserve for unexpected hemorrhaging

18

tunica intima

cell layer that folds of venous valves occur

19

sympathetic control

type of control arteriovenous vessels use

20

Heart and Brain

organs anastomoses vessels are found

21

bone marrow, liver, and skin

organs that receive the most blood from venous reserve 21% in case of hemorrhaging

22

Capillaries

only vessel that permits exchange due to its thin walls

23

Capillaries

decreases blood diffusion distance

24

Tunica Intima Endothelium in Capillaries

layer is 1 cell thick

25

Continuous Capillaries

vessel bound by tight junctions, located in most places in body

26

Continuous Capillaries

permit diffusion of: water, small solutes and lipid soluble materials

27

Continuous Capillaries

prevent escape of blood cells and plasma proteins

28

Fenestrated Capillaries

permits rapid exchange of water and solutes

29

Porous

fenestrated capillary that permits rapid exchange of H2O and solutes

30

Fenestrated capillaries

found where absorption and filtration need to be enhanced

31

Sinusoidal capillaries

very specialized permit free exchange of fluid

32

Sinusoidal cap bone marrow

brings RBC into blood and phagocytes stick cytoplasmic extension in to monitor RBC

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Sinusoidal cap spleen

monitors RBC

34

Sinusoidal liver

plasma proteins into blood, monitors RBC

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Sinusoidal spleen and liver

monitors RBC

36

Sinusoidal bone marrow

brings RBC into blood and phagocytes stick cytoplasmic extension in to monitor RBC

37

cap bed

receive more than one artery (collaterals)

38

lots of capillaries

1 arteriole gives rise to..

39

Pre-capillary sphincters

blood flow regulated in cap bed

40

Vasomotion

constant control of blood enter in cap bed

41

Vasomotion

controlled by local changes O2 need

42

Vasomotion

at rest 25% of total capillary bed volume is filled

43

25%

percent total cap bed volume is filled always

44

Arteriole

vessel that gives rise to capillary bed

45

Collateral

receives more than one artery

46

Capillary Tunica Intima Role

gas and nutrient exchange

47

Porous

full of pores or vessels or holes, allowing passage in and out

48

Kidney and Endocrine gland

place where absorption/filtration need to be enhanced

49

Endocrine gland

a ductless gland that secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream

50

Fenestrated

having a window or opening

51

Spleen, Liver, Bone Marrow

sinusoidal capillary organs

52

Arteries

Carry blood away from heart
Carry O2
Snap back in shape due to elastic fibers

53

Capillaries

Smallest of blood vessels for nutrients and gas exchange

54

Veins

Carry blood to heart - valves for gravity
Carry deO2

55

Tunica Intima

Endothelium
Internal elastic layer
Continuos w/ endocardium

56

Tunica Media

External elastic membrane
Circular sheets of smooth muscle
Maintain blood pressure (artery)
Tolerates huge pressure change

57

Tunica Externa (Adventitia)

Connective tissue sheath
Nerves, small blood vessels
*Relatively thick in veins

58

Tunica Media

Layer maintains blood pressure ( elastic artery) by distributing the energy of systolic pressure

59

Tunica Media

Layer contains circular sheets of smooth muscle

60

Tunica Intima

Layer contains endothelium

61

Tunica Intima

Layer is continuous w/ endocardium

62

Tunica Externa

Layer contains nerves and small blood vessels

63

Tunica Externa

Layer is relatively thick in veins

64

Tunica Externa

layer contains connective tissue sheath

65

Artery

Snaps back in shape due to elastic fibers
contraction relaxation control diameter

66

Veins

contain valves - work against gravity

67

Vasoconstriction

contraction of smooth muscle decreases diameter

68

Vasodilation

relaxation of smooth muscle increases diameter

69

Elastic Arteries

tolerates huge pressure change in tunica media

70

Elastic Arteries

distributes energy of systolic pressure spikes in tunica media

71

Muscular Arteries

more muscular layer in tunica media

72

Elastic Artery measure

D: 1.5 cm
T: 1 mm

73

Muscular Artery

D: 6 mm
T: 1 mm

74

Arteriole

D: 37 um
T: 6 um

75

Arteriole

resistance vessels, decrease diameter which increase resistance and blood pressure

76

Arteriole

vessel has poorly defined tunica externa
and tunica media is 1-2 layers

77

Arteriole

changes in diameter due to hormonal or nervous stimulation

78

Muscular Arteries

distributes blood to tissues- 'distribute arteries

79

Elastic Arteries

transports large volumes of blood away from heart - 'conducting arteries'

80

Elastic Arteries

another name for conducting artery

81

Muscular Arteries

pressure point to stop bleeding

82

Arterioles

smallest blood arteries

83

Artery to Arteriole to Capillary to Venules to Veins

order of vessel blood flow

84

Tunica Interna - Internal Elastic membrane - Tunica Media - External Elastic membrane - Tunica Externa

layers of vessel inner to outer including elastic membrane

85

Elastic Arteries

transport large volume of blood away from heart

86

Elastic Arteries

tunica media contains lost of elastic fiber and little smooth muscle for cardiac cycle