Acids, Bases, and Titrations

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1

forms H+ in solution

Arrhenious Acid

2

forms OH- in solution

Arrhenious Base

3

proton donor

Bronsted-Lowry acid

4

proton acceptor

Bronsted-Lowry base

5

electron pair acceptor

Lewis acid

6

electron pair donor

Lewis base

7

hydronium

H3O+

8

acid that loses two protons

diprotic

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acid that loses three protons

triprotic

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acid that loses more than three protons

polyprotic

11

Ka

acid dissociation constant

12

strong acids

HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4

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stronger acids have...

weaker bases

14

amphoteric

can act as acid or base

15

Kb

base dissociation constant

16

strong bases

LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2

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ions act like

acids and bases

18

salts dissolve to form

ions

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anions

negative charge

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cations

postive charge

21

anions form

neutral or weak bases

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cations form

neutral or weak acids

23

neutral charge is formed when

there is a conjugate base or acid to a strong acid or base

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weak base is obtained from

conjugate base of weak acid

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weak acid is obtained from

conjugate acid of weak base

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neutral solution when

neither cation or anion acts as an acid or base

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basic solution when

cation is neutral and anion acts as a base

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acidic solution when

anion is neutral and cation acts as an acid

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compare relative strengths when

anion and cation act as base and acid

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polyprotic acid

more than one proton can be lose through successive dissociation

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binary acid

two elements were one is hydrogen

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binary acids are based on

bond polarity and bond strength

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oxyacid

composed of hydrogen, oxygen, and something else

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as electronegativity increases

acid strength increases

35

as more bonds are added

acid stregth increases due to shared electrons weakening bonds

36

acid rain forms

nitric and sulfuric acids

37

buffers

solutions that resist change in pH and consume and acid or base and change it

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common ion effect

effect on the presence of the conjugate base on the dissociation of the acid

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reaction dissolves

less acid

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buffer capacity

ability to resist change in pH

41

amount of acid or base that can be added to the buffer without causing a large change in pH

buffer capacity

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buffer capacity is

distict from pH of buffer

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when component concentrations are equal...

buffer capacity is at its max

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buffer range

pH range over which the buffer acts effectively

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relative concentrations of acid and conjugate base should not differ by more than

a factor of 10

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indicator

substance whose color depends on pH

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titratant

solution being added

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analyte

solution that experiences chemical change

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endpoint

when indicator changes color

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equivance point

moles of acid = moles of base

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titration error

changes color within one drop of equivance point

52

Ksp

solubility product constant

53

molar solubility

solubility in units of moles per liter

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if Q is less than K

no precipitant forms

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if Q = K

solution is saturated

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if Q is greater than K

precipitant forms

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stalactites

top

58

stalagmites

bottom