The extra capacity of lungs, heart, and other organs to respond to particularly demanding situations shows the first signs of decline, but with no effect on normal activities.
A statistical estimate of the probable number of years remaining in the life of an individual based on the likelihood that members of a particular birth cohort will die at various ages.
The degeneration of the bone that affects an estimated one in three postmenopausal women.
The number of cases of disease.
A reduction in sex hormone production.
Normal age-related changes that everyone experiences, such as menopause in women and similar hormonal changes in men.
The increase in the volume of an organ or tissue.
Estrogen Replacement Therapy (ERT)
The taking of replacement estrogen.
The number of deaths.
Pathological aging or the effects of illness or disease on the body due to environmental exposure or health-compromising behaviors.
The surgical removal of the uterus.
The surgical removal of the ovaries.
Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
The taking of a combination of estrogen and progestin (artificial progesterone).