Proteins and Nucleic Acids
What are the building blocks of proteins
How many amino acids are there
How many essential amino acids do we obtain from food?
carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen sulfer
What elements make up a protein
all the work
fight off diseases
help you move
store amino acids
what do they do?
primary secondary tertiary quaternary
4 levels of proteins
the carbon chains
what is different in each amino acid?
proteins which contain all 20 amino acids
ex dairy and meat
what are complete proteins?
proteins that lack one or more essential protein or are very low
ex. vegetables fruit
What are incomplete proteins?
how many amino acids to protein contain
amine group- carbon chain- carboxyl group
what is the structure of an amino acid?
the kind sequence and order of amino acids
what distinguishes one protein from another
what causes an altered protein to not function properly
they have similar protein sequences
what happens if two species are closely related
what connects two amino acids?
between the carbon of the carboxyl group and nitrogen of the amine group in an amino acid
where does a peptide bond connect?
what is a peptide bond formed by?
how is a peptide bond broken down?
one less than the number of amino acids
how many bonds are there in a carbon chain?
two amino acids connected by one peptide bond
what is a dipeptide?
many amino acids connected by many peptide bonds
what is a polypeptide
the sequence is linear
helix or pleated sheet- repeated sequence
proteins twist turn and fold in different directions
the interaction of two or more plypeptide chains
catalysts which speed reactions
what are enzymers?
they are specific and match up with only one substrate
how to enzymes fit with a compound
high tempertures, changes in pH
what destroys enzymes?
they become denatured, their shape changes and they no longer function properly
what happens when enzymes interact with high temperatures and changes in pH
what are they usually names after?
where the reaction occures with a substrate
what are active sites on enzymes?
lock and key
old hypothesis of enzyme substrate combo?
new hypothesis of enzyme substrate combo
what do all readtions that occur in organisms need?
certain genetic diseases
what do non-functioning enzymes in organism cause?
carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen phosphorous sulfer
what are the 6 most important elements in living things?
proteins that hace a long reg repeated sequence?
what type of structure is globular
what does your blood type mean
heoglobin is the same for all......
proteins unfamiliar to your body
what does your immune system attack
make substances inactive
what is a competitive inhibitor?
binds with enzyme where it wont matter but changed the enzyme so substrate cant fit
what is a non competitive inhibitor?
what are the building blocks of nucleic acids?
phosphate sugar and a base
what are nucleotides made of
carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen phosphorous
what are the elements in a nucleic acid?
replicate: DNA makes DNA
DNA makes RNA
what is the function of a nucleic acid?
it is a nucleotide used for energy
what is atp and what is it used for
Is atp a nucleic acid?
elastin, hair, silk
what are examples of protein
RNA and DNA
what are examples of nucleic acids?
what structure is DNA
what sugar is used in DNA
what bases are in DNA
What structure is RNA
what sugar is in RNA
what bases are used in RNA
3 phosphate gos, ribose, and adenine
what makes up ATP
large- double rings- gaunine and adenine
which bases are purines and what are they
small- single ring- cytosine and thymine
which bases are pyrimidines and what are they
what does DNA do
what does RNA fo
weak hydrogen bonds
what connects bases in DNA
sun and back
how far can DNA reach
what compound is the biggest?
one less then ribose
how many oxygens do deoxyribose have?