NPLEX - Cardiovascular (not completed)

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1

When does the vascular system appear in embryonic development?

In the middle of the third week

2

Where do the progenitor heart cells lie before they migrate?

In the epiblast, immediately adjacent to the cranial end of the primitive streak

3

Where do the progenitor heart cells migrate too?

Through the primitive streak into the splanchnic layer of the lateral plate mesoderm, where they form a horseshoe-shaped cluster of cells cranial to the neural folds

4

What is the horseshoe-shaped cluster of cells called?

The primitive heart field (PHF)

5

The horseshoe shaped region is known as the?

Cardiogenic region

6

Above the cariogenic region of an embryo lies the _______ , which eventually becomes the ________ .

Intraembryonic cavity; pericardial cavity

7

During days 16 to 18, migrating cells of the primitive heart field (PHF) become specified on both sides of the cranial neural folds lateral to medial to become the:

Atria, left ventricle, and most of the right ventricle

8

A secondary heart field (SHF) appears later by day 20 to 21 and become the:

Part of the right ventral, and outflow tract (conus corgis and trances arterisous)

9

Where does the secondary heart field form?

In the splanchnic mesoderm ventral (underside) to the posterior pharynx

10

What is the master gene for left-sidedness?

PITX2 (induced by 5HT - serotonin)

11

What medication can disrupt embryonic development of laterality of the heart causing malformations?

Antidepressants of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

12

What cells induce the heart progenitor cells into cardiac myoblast cells?

The endoderm

13

What are the 3 layers of the embryonic heart tube?

Endocardium, myocardium, and the epicardium (visceral pericardium)

14

Which embryonic heart layer is responsible for formation of the coronary arteries (including the endothelium and smooth muscle)?

Epicardium or visceral pericardium

15

The secondary heart field is regulated by _________ that control concentration of FGFs in the area.

Neural crest cells