Nucleotides and Nucleic acids

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1

Parent compounds of nitrogenous bases in nucleic acids

Pyrimidine
Purine

2

Major purines present in nucleic acids

Adenine
Guanine

3

Major pyrimidines present in nucleic acids

Cytosine
Thymine (DNA)
Uracil (RNA)

4

General structure of a nucleotide

~Purine or pyrimidine base
~Phosphate
~Pentose

5

Bases found in RNA

Adenine
Guanine
Cytosine
Uracil

6

Bases found in DNA

Adenine
Guanine
Cytosine
Thymine

7

Second messenger nucleotides

~Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP; cAMP)
~Guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP; cGMP)

8

Nucleotide that improves mRNA stability

Guanosine 5'-diphosphate, 3'-diphosphate (guanosine tetraphosphate) (ppGpp)

9

3 biologically important nucleotide coenzymes

Coenzyme A
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)
Flavin adenine dinucleotide

10

8 minor ribonucleotides

5-methylcytidine
N6-methyladenosine
N2-methylguanosine
5-hydroxymethylcytidine
Inosine
Pseudouridine
7-methylguanosine
4-thiouridine

11

How does a phosphodiester bond form?

Phosphate of one nucleotide interacts with hydroxyl group of another nucleotide through a condensation reaction

12

What is the backbone of a nucleic acid molecule?

phosphodiester linkage

13

how are phosphodiester bonds links

5' phosphate of a nucleotide is linked with the 3' OH of the preceding nucleotide

14

Chargaff's rules

~base composition of DNA varies of from one species to another
~DNA specimens isolated from different tissues of the same species have the same base composition
~base composition of DNA in a given species does not change with an organism's age, nutritional state, or changing environment
~A=T and C=G so A+G=T+C

15

What holds the strands in a DNA molecule together

Hydrogen bonds

16

What kind of structure do DNA molecules form?

right-handed alpha-helical structure

17

A pairs with _

T

18

G pairs with _

C

19

B-form of DNA structure

when in aqueous solution (In vivo)

20

A-form of DNA structure

when water content is <75% (in vitro conditions; DNA-RNA hybrids)

21

Z-form of DNA structure

a left-handed helix (In vivo; DNA involved in regulation of gene expression

22

2 types of patterns in nucleic acid structure

Palindrome
Mirror Repeat

23

What structures of DNA and RNA are formed by palindromes?

Hairpin - RNA
Cruciform - DNA
*depending on single or double strand

24

What happens when ionic strength of double-stranded DNA is lowered

DNA denaturation and strand separation

25

What happens to DNA at a higher temperature?

melts

26

What affects the melting temperature of DNA?

Base conformation

27

Deamination reaction

Mutation of bases involving a removal of an amino group

28

Cytosine can be changed to _

uracil

29

5-methylcytosine can be changed to _

thymine

30

Adenine can be changed to _

hypoxanthine

31

Guanine can be changed to _

Xanthine

32

Depurination reaction

A purine is lost by hydrolysis of the N-B-glycosyl bond

33

4 Synthetic nucleotides/nucleosides that are pharmacological agents

DideoxyNTP (ddNTP)
Didanosine (2',3'-dideoxyinosine, ddI)
Zidovudine (Azidothymidine, AZT)
2',3'-dideoxycitidine (ddC)

34

Functions of ribosomal RNA

Structural component
Protein synthesis

35

Cellular location of messenger RNA

nucleus
cytoplasm
mitochondria

36

Functions of messenger RNA

Carrier of genetic material

37

Cellular location of transfer RNA

cytoplasm
mitochondria

38

Function of transfer RNA

protein synthesis

39

cellular location of small nuclear RNA

ribosomes
nucleus
cytoplasm

40

functions of small nuclear RNA

structural component
protein synthesis
gene regulation

41

cellular location of microRNA

nucleus
cytoplasm

42

Functions of micro RNA

gene regulation