Properties of Water, Acids, and Bases
If the difference between 2 atoms is greater than 1.67, what kind of bond will be made?
If the difference between 2 atoms is less than 1.67, what kind of bond will be made?
Hoe many bonds (and what kind of) bonds does water have?
2 Covalent bonds
Is water polar or non-polar
What is the ph level of water?
What is cohesion?
When water sticks together (makes H-bonds) with itself
What is adhesion?
When water sticks with other substances (makes H-bonds with the other substance)
What is Capillary action?
The sucking up of water (like through a straw) which can be done by cohesion/adhesion.
What is an example of capillary action?
Water being sucked up by the roots of a tree from the soil.
Capillary action of water into seeds
The substance dissolving another substance (Ex/ water)
The substance being dissolved (Ex/ salt or sugar)
homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances (gas, solid, or liquid)
Is water a solvent or solute?
Hydrophilic molecules (Hint: They are polar)
Can make bonds, and mix with water (salt)
Hydrophobic molecules (Hint: They are non-polar)
Cannot makes bonds with water, thus not being able to mix with water. (oil)
Layers that are formed because the hydrophobic molecules bond with themselves to form a layer in the solvent. (oil layer in H20)
Is the oil layer in water an example of a hydration shell?
What is 0 degrees Celsius?
The Freezing point of water
What is 100 degrees Celsius?
The boiling point of water
The amount of energy needed to heat 1g of a substance by 1 degree Celcius
How would you describe water's specific heat?
The amount of energy needed to heat 1g of water up by 1 degree celcius
Why does air temperature fluctuate?
Because air has a lower specific heat, so it takes less energy to change its temperature; making it so that it is prone to change more frequently.
Warm Blooded Creature
How do H-bonds make it take so much energy to heat up water?
To heat up water, the H-bonds need to be broken; so it takes more energy to heat up water because you 1st need to break the H-bonds, which take a lot of energy.
What happens to water from 10-4 degrees Celsius?
It becomes more dense, it clumps together.
What happens to water when it begins to cool?
It condenses, then expands
What happens to water between 4-0 degrees Celsius?
Hydrogen bonds are formed, the molecules begin to spread out, it becomes less dense.
Which is denser, water or ice, and why?
ice, because ice expands due to its H-bonds
What does water turn into?
A Hydroxide and Hydronium ion(s)
What is Hydroxide and Hydronium?
OH(-) H3O (+)
The power of hydrogen (amount of H+)
What is the pH scale for acid?
What is the neutral pH?
What is the pH scale for bases?
Any molecule that releases a H+. Acids are harmful because the H+ destroys the cells. Cancels out a base.
Any molecule capable of releasing an OH-. Bases can counteract an acid because the OH- can bond with the H+ to create water. Cancels out an acid.
A unit of measurement,
How do you find how many grams are in 1 mole of a substance?
Add the atomic weight of the atoms in the molecule
How many atoms/molecules are in 1 mole?
6.023 x 1023 atoms/molecules
Rain that has mixed with S02, and Nitrogen Oxides to produce an acidic rain.
What causes acid rain?
Emissions of S02 and Nitrogen Oxides
What is a buffer?
Something that bonds with H+ or OH (-). It protects the cell, by preventing too much H+ or OH (-) from forming, which would create a strong acid and kill the cell
What is an example of a application of buffers?
A buffer is given to someone who is not breathing to prevent a build up of H+ in their blood.