Chapter 1-5 Neo/Pedi
At what stage of embryologic development does the ovum enter the uterus?
The respiratory system arises from which of the following germ layers?
The earliest development of the lung begins at
Dichotomy of the airways occurs during which phase of lung development?
Which of the following statements best describes surface tension?
the inward movement of surface molecules due to kinetic energy
Which of the following, when found in amniotic fluid, is the best indicator of fetal lung maturity?
Which of the following does not appear to accelerate fetal lung maturation?
Which of the following are true concerning lung fluid?
- there is approx. 20-30 mL/kg present at birth
- it has a lower pH, protein, and bicarbonate levels than amniotic fluid
- it maintains the patency of the developing airways
The heart develops from which germ layer?
the embryologic truncus arteriosus develops into
- the pulmonary artery
- the aorta
Which of the following describes the path of blood that is shunted through the foramen ovale?
from right to left atrium
The ductus arteriosus shunts blood from?
the pulmonary artery to the aorta
Which of the following statements is correct?
Baroreceptors are actually stretch receptors
In the placenta, the fetal vessels are contained in the:
what is considered a neonate?
from delivery through the first month of life
What is considered an infant?
from one month to one year
what is considered a child?
a patient above one year
what is the placenta used for?
an organ of respiration for the baby. it receives nutrients and O2 and rids itself of CO2 and other wastes
Of what use is the umbilical cord?
The fetal lifeline from the mother. it contains Two arteries and one floppy vein
What is the purpose of Wharton's jelly?
insulates and protects the 3 vessels, prevents kinking and the pinching off of the blood flow. It also induces constriction after the cord is cut due to the abrupt temperature change after birth
what are the functions of amniotic fluid?
protects baby from injury, provides thermoregulation, and facilitates fetal movement, and helps dilate and efface the cervix during L&D
How is amniotic fluid considered dynamic
It is constantly being absorbed and replenished. Baby swallows about 500mL/day and excretes 500mL of hypotonic urine per day
What is an unusually large amount of amniotic fluid called and what does it mean?
Polyhydraminos (usually >2000 mL) and could indicate CNS malformation, spina bifida, esophageal atresia, cleft palate, down syndrome, or congenital heart disease
What is an unusually small amount of amniotic fluid called and what does it mean?
Oligohydraminos and it usually indicated a defect in the urinary system of the baby. It can cause fetal adhesion of one body part to another, and can cause hypoplasia of the fetal lungs
What are the 5 stages of pulmonary development
embryonal, pseudoglandular, canacicular, saccular, alveolar
Describe the embryonal stage
- First 8 weeks of gestation
- earliest development of lungs begins 24 days post conception
- future GI tract, primitive gut, early oral/nasal openings, pharynx and foregut, connection of primitive mouth and foregut
Describe pseudoglandular stage
covers weeks 7-16