Single celled organisms such as bacteria. Does not have nucleus. Has DNA. Has cell membrane. Always has cell wall.
Multicellular organisms such as plantas and animals. Has DNA. Some have cell wall. Has cell membrane.
Nucleus of cell
is responsible for the activitiers of the cell regarding DNA
responsible for the production of proteins. Can be free of bound to any membrane.
Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth
lacks ribosomes and is involved is lipid synthesis
Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough
A network of passageways that carries materials from one part of the cell to another: Had ribosomes embedded or attached to it. Protein is produced here.
takes on the process of exocytosis so that materias can be secreted from the cell.
are often termed the suicide sacs of the cell, because of theri involvement with digestion within the cell.
Known for their abioity to store materials.
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
present in plants, contains chlorophyll to carry photosysnthesis.
Gives shape and structure.
Allows the cell to move, are located outside of the cell.
Not considered to ben anorganelle. The cell membrane is selective in which materiasl enter and exit the cell. It is selectively permeable.
present in plant cells, the cellulose containing cell wall helps to give the plant cell rigidity.
is the process in which particles naturally move from an area of high concentration to an rea of low concentration.
Is when water diffuses accross the membrane
the contartion inside and out of the cell are the same
a solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution. Swell.
a solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution. Shrink.
the movement of dissolved materials through a cell membrane without using energy
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
organic compounds that contain carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. major soruce of energy in the body.
a chemical process in which a compound is broken down and changed into other compounds by taking up the elements of water.
a chemical reaction in which large molecules are formed by removing water from smaller molecules and joining them together
contains carbon, hydrogen, oxyge, and nitrogen. source of energy. needed by tissue for repair and growth. made up of 20 amino acids.
the chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid
Molecules, usually proteins or nucleic acids, that act as catalysts in biochemical reactions.
energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
a fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms. Contains all single bonds.
an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP
a process in which an agent causes an organic substance to break down into simpler substances
the process in which pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make a large amount of ATP; the part of respiration that is carried out in the presence of oxygen. During this process 32 ATP molecules are formed along with water.
messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome. Copies DNA in a process called transcription.
Compliments mRNA via an anticodon that corresponds to an amino acid that t RNA will caryy
is found as part of ribosomes and helps in the formation of polypeptides.
does not have Thymine and pairs up uracil
Is double stranded
occurs when a seuence of nucleil acids in genetic material is alter or damage.
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
the period of the cell cycle during which the nucleus is not undergoing division, typically occurring between mitotic or meiotic divisions
Chromosomes have replicated and have produces two chromatids. Pairs of chromatids then pair up via sya[sis to form a tetrad.
Cetromeres of the tetrads line up in the cell
Disjuction takes place and the homologous chromosomes separate.
the cytoplasm divides and two daughter cells are formed.
spindles form to separate chromosomes. No replication of the chromosomes has occured in this phase.
the double stranded chormosoems are lined up along the equator and bocome attached to spindle fibers at the centromere.
the two chromatids separate and become singl estranded chromosoems as they moveto opposite sides of the cell.
the cells deivide again forming four cells, each with a haploid number of chromosomes.
is diffetent for males (spermatogenesis) and for femal(oogenesis)e
the priamre spermatocyte develosp into four sperm.
just one egg cell is formed from the oocyte along with three polar bodies.
Teeth grind food as the tongue helps mix food with saliva
Saliva moistens the food as salivary amylase breaks down starches.
This strcuture prevents food from entering the larynx as the food is swallowed. The food can eneter only the esophagus.
Muscles in here push food into the stomach via theprocess of peristalsis.
Churning helps break down food and mix it wiht gastric juices to form chyme.
Hydrochloric acid breaks down the food and kills bacteria. Pepsi breaks down proteins.
Small intestine MD
Villi and microvilli increase the surface area of the small intestine and greatly increase the level of absorption of nutrients.
Small intestine CD
Pancreatic juice containing amylase, proteses, and lipase is secreted from the pancreas. Bile, produces by the livver and stored in the gallblader, is released to emulsify fats and oils. Intestinal secretions also help continue the breakdown of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins.
large Intestine MD
Water is reabsorbed along with vitamins.
Stores fecal matter before being defectaed via the anus.
Carry blood away from the heart.
Are elastic and thick
Return blood to the heart
are thin and less elastic
use valves to prevent blood backflow
Have walls that are one cell thick to allow for materiasl to pass through.
connect arterires to vein.
time during which the heart is contracting.
Time during which the heart relaxes.
is regulated by authorhythmic cells, the sa node and the av node.
responsible to contract both atria. Pacemaker. Starts th cardiac cycle
signals the ventricles to contract.
is composed of veins and capillaries in which lymph can travel.
is composed of plasma, redblood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
are responsible of carrying oxygen via the hemoglobin in the cells
Leukocytes (White blood cells)
defend the body aginst foreign invaders such as bacteria and viruses.
are responsible for helping the blood clot and seal breaks in the walls of blood vessels.
Primary defense against infection
skin, tears, stomach acid, urine, sweat, mucus and salivay.
Secondary defense against infection
bring inflammation so that macorphages and neutrophi;s consume the bacterial
is produced if the pahtogen is a virus, it will call other cells to that region of thebody to block the virus.
Third line of defense against infection
is the way the body remembers specific pathogens and their structures.
memorization and prouction of antibodies.
the antibodies have been obtained from outside the body, either from another animal or person.
have antigen receptors and antibodies, and they work to fight off bacteria.
can form plasma cells and memory cells.
Plasma B cells
produce antibodies that bind to antigens
Memory B cells
form new plasma cells if the bacteria enter the body again.
are responsible for recognizing nonself cells
Killer T cells
have the task of binding to cells that have been infected by virus
Memory T cells
are ready to produce more killer T cells in case a virus renteres the body.
Helper T cells
in both bacterial and viral infections, are available to recognize the antigens that have been ingested and displayed by macrophages.