Science Review

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1

Prokaryotes

Single celled organisms such as bacteria. Does not have nucleus. Has DNA. Has cell membrane. Always has cell wall.

2

Eukaryotic

Multicellular organisms such as plantas and animals. Has DNA. Some have cell wall. Has cell membrane.

3

Nucleus of cell

is responsible for the activitiers of the cell regarding DNA

4

Ribosomes

responsible for the production of proteins. Can be free of bound to any membrane.

5

Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth

lacks ribosomes and is involved is lipid synthesis

6

Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough

A network of passageways that carries materials from one part of the cell to another: Had ribosomes embedded or attached to it. Protein is produced here.

7

Golgi Bodies

takes on the process of exocytosis so that materias can be secreted from the cell.

8

Lysosomes

are often termed the suicide sacs of the cell, because of theri involvement with digestion within the cell.

9

Vaculoes

Known for their abioity to store materials.

10

Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production

11

Chloroplasts

present in plants, contains chlorophyll to carry photosysnthesis.

12

Cytoskeleton

Gives shape and structure.

13

Cilia/Flagella

Allows the cell to move, are located outside of the cell.

14

Cell membrane

Not considered to ben anorganelle. The cell membrane is selective in which materiasl enter and exit the cell. It is selectively permeable.

15

Cell Wall

present in plant cells, the cellulose containing cell wall helps to give the plant cell rigidity.

16

Diffusion

is the process in which particles naturally move from an area of high concentration to an rea of low concentration.

17

Osmosis

Is when water diffuses accross the membrane

18

Isotonic solution

the contartion inside and out of the cell are the same

19

Hypotonic solution

a solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution. Swell.

20

Hypertonic solution

a solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution. Shrink.

21

Passive transportation

the movement of dissolved materials through a cell membrane without using energy

22

Active Transport

the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy

23

Carbohidrates

organic compounds that contain carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. major soruce of energy in the body.

24

Hydrolysis

a chemical process in which a compound is broken down and changed into other compounds by taking up the elements of water.

25

Dehydration synthesis

a chemical reaction in which large molecules are formed by removing water from smaller molecules and joining them together

26

Proteins

contains carbon, hydrogen, oxyge, and nitrogen. source of energy. needed by tissue for repair and growth. made up of 20 amino acids.

27

Peptide Bond

the chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid

28

Enzymes

Molecules, usually proteins or nucleic acids, that act as catalysts in biochemical reactions.

29

Lipids

energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

30

Saturated fat

a fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms. Contains all single bonds.

31

Nucleic Acid

an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information

32

Glycolysis

a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP

33

Fermentation

a process in which an agent causes an organic substance to break down into simpler substances

34

Aerobic respiration

the process in which pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make a large amount of ATP; the part of respiration that is carried out in the presence of oxygen. During this process 32 ATP molecules are formed along with water.

35

mRNA

messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome. Copies DNA in a process called transcription.

36

tRNA

Compliments mRNA via an anticodon that corresponds to an amino acid that t RNA will caryy

37

rRNA

is found as part of ribosomes and helps in the formation of polypeptides.

38

RNA

does not have Thymine and pairs up uracil

39

DNA

Is double stranded

40

RNA

single stranded

41

Mutation

occurs when a seuence of nucleil acids in genetic material is alter or damage.

42

Mitosis

cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes

43

Meiosis

(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms

44

Interphase

the period of the cell cycle during which the nucleus is not undergoing division, typically occurring between mitotic or meiotic divisions

45

Prophase I

Chromosomes have replicated and have produces two chromatids. Pairs of chromatids then pair up via sya[sis to form a tetrad.

46

Metaphase I

Cetromeres of the tetrads line up in the cell

47

AnaPhase I

Disjuction takes place and the homologous chromosomes separate.

48

Telophase I

the cytoplasm divides and two daughter cells are formed.

49

Prophase II

spindles form to separate chromosomes. No replication of the chromosomes has occured in this phase.

50

Metaphase II

the double stranded chormosoems are lined up along the equator and bocome attached to spindle fibers at the centromere.

51

Anaphase II

the two chromatids separate and become singl estranded chromosoems as they moveto opposite sides of the cell.

52

Telophase II

the cells deivide again forming four cells, each with a haploid number of chromosomes.

53

Gametogenesis

is diffetent for males (spermatogenesis) and for femal(oogenesis)e

54

Spermatogenesis

the priamre spermatocyte develosp into four sperm.

55

Oogenesis

just one egg cell is formed from the oocyte along with three polar bodies.

56

Mouth MD

Teeth grind food as the tongue helps mix food with saliva

57

Mouth CD

Saliva moistens the food as salivary amylase breaks down starches.

58

Epiglottis MD

This strcuture prevents food from entering the larynx as the food is swallowed. The food can eneter only the esophagus.

59

Esophagus MD

Muscles in here push food into the stomach via theprocess of peristalsis.

60

Stomach MD

Churning helps break down food and mix it wiht gastric juices to form chyme.

61

Stomach CD

Hydrochloric acid breaks down the food and kills bacteria. Pepsi breaks down proteins.

62

Small intestine MD

Villi and microvilli increase the surface area of the small intestine and greatly increase the level of absorption of nutrients.

63

Small intestine CD

Pancreatic juice containing amylase, proteses, and lipase is secreted from the pancreas. Bile, produces by the livver and stored in the gallblader, is released to emulsify fats and oils. Intestinal secretions also help continue the breakdown of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins.

64

large Intestine MD

Water is reabsorbed along with vitamins.

65

Rectum MD

Stores fecal matter before being defectaed via the anus.

66

Arteries

Carry blood away from the heart.

67

Arteries

Are elastic and thick

68

Veins

Return blood to the heart

69

Veins

are thin and less elastic

70

Veins

use valves to prevent blood backflow

71

Capillaries

Have walls that are one cell thick to allow for materiasl to pass through.

72

Capillaries

connect arterires to vein.

73

Systole

time during which the heart is contracting.

74

Diastole

Time during which the heart relaxes.

75

Cardiac Cycle

is regulated by authorhythmic cells, the sa node and the av node.

76

Sa node

responsible to contract both atria. Pacemaker. Starts th cardiac cycle

77

Av node

signals the ventricles to contract.

78

Lymphatic system

is composed of veins and capillaries in which lymph can travel.

79

Blood

is composed of plasma, redblood cells, white blood cells and platelets.

80

Erythrocytes

are responsible of carrying oxygen via the hemoglobin in the cells

81

Leukocytes (White blood cells)

defend the body aginst foreign invaders such as bacteria and viruses.

82

Platelets

are responsible for helping the blood clot and seal breaks in the walls of blood vessels.

83

Primary defense against infection

skin, tears, stomach acid, urine, sweat, mucus and salivay.

84

Secondary defense against infection

bring inflammation so that macorphages and neutrophi;s consume the bacterial

85

Interferon

is produced if the pahtogen is a virus, it will call other cells to that region of thebody to block the virus.

86

Third line of defense against infection

is the way the body remembers specific pathogens and their structures.

87

Active immunity

memorization and prouction of antibodies.

88

Passive immunity

the antibodies have been obtained from outside the body, either from another animal or person.

89

B cells

have antigen receptors and antibodies, and they work to fight off bacteria.

90

B cells

can form plasma cells and memory cells.

91

Plasma B cells

produce antibodies that bind to antigens

92

Memory B cells

form new plasma cells if the bacteria enter the body again.

93

T cells

are responsible for recognizing nonself cells

94

Killer T cells

have the task of binding to cells that have been infected by virus

95

Memory T cells

are ready to produce more killer T cells in case a virus renteres the body.

96

Helper T cells

in both bacterial and viral infections, are available to recognize the antigens that have been ingested and displayed by macrophages.