L7: Structure/Function of Nucleic Acids

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1

Nucleoside

Nitrogenous base + pentose sugar

2

Nucleotide

NItrogenous base + Pentose + phosphate

3

Purine bases

-2 N rings
-Adenine & Guanine
-N9 connects to C1 of pentose

4

Pyrimidine bases

Pirates CUT
-1 N ring
-Cytosine, Uracil, Guanine
-N1 connects to C1 of pentose

5

Allopurinol

Analog used to treat Gout (excess uric acid)
-Competitive inhibitor
-Binds to xanthine oxidase
-Produce more hypoxanthine

6

5-Fluorodeoxyuracil

Terminates DNA replication by replacing methyl on thymine with Uracil

7

Tautomers

Structural isomers dep. on proton placement
-pH dependent

8

Beta-N-glycosidic Bond

Pentose ring attached to N-base
-C1 (anomeric carbon)
-N9 in purines
-N1 in pyridimidines

9

Phosphate group

-Negatively charged
-C5 position

10

Covalent bonds are formed between ______ linkages on DNA

Phosphodiester bonds

11

Forms of DNA

B form- most relaxed, commonly found
A form- favored in non-H20 solution
Z form- altenating CG or 5-methyl-C & G

12

DNA polymerases in prokaryotic/eukarytoic

Eukaryotic- Alpha- primase to synthesize primer. Removed by RNaseH
Delta- Lagging strand synthesis
Epsilon- Leading strand synthesis
Prokaryotic: Pol 1- removes primer, replace w/ DNA
Pol 2- repair enzyme
Pol 3- leading & lagging strand synthesis

13

If radioactive thymidine is incorporated into DNA, describe the drop off of radiation over several generations

1/2

14

DNA Replication prokaryotes

Initiates at ORI site
-Two replication forks in opposite directions
-

15

DNA replication eukaryotes

Multiple ori sites (Autonomously replicating sequences, ARS's)
AT-rich
-Lagging strand away from replication fork, leading strand TOWARDS replication fork

16

RNA primers removed by ____
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Prokaryotes: Pol. 1 (exonuclease)
Eukaryotes: RNase H

17

Sliding clamp protein

Load Polymerase onto primer, maintain close assoc. ith template

18

Topisomerases

Fxn: Reversible breaking and rejoining of strands

19

Gyrase inhibitors (Bacterial & human)

Bacterial: Type II topisomerase
Ciproflaxacin, nalidixic acid
Human: Type II topisomerase
Etoposide, doxorubucin

20

DNA proofreading

Exonuclease activity in 3'-5' direction