General Chemistry Acids and Bases

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equilibrium of autoionization of water, 2H20 --> H30+ + OH- lies in what direction?

the equilibrium lies far to the left, this is because the equilibrium constant is 1 x 10^-14 (Kw), there are hardly any prodcuts formed


conducitivity of salts, strong acids, and strong bases

salts, strong acids and strong bases all dissociate into ions nearly completely when dissolved in aqueous solutions (this includes liquid salt)


acidic conjugate base

can have acidic conjugate bases in the case of sulfuric acid


If HA is stronger than H30+ as an acid

HA + H2O <--> A- + H3O+, HA will transfer a proton to H2O more effectively than H3O+ will transfer a proton to A-


determining the percent ionization of the acid

temperature of the solution, identity of acid, and concentration of acid


nitrate salt acidity/basicity

nitrate is conjugate to HNO3 which is a strong acid, for this reason nitrate is neutral



the mixing of equal mole portions of acid with a base, regardless of their concentrations and strengths; neutralization does not mean to make the pH of the solution equal to 7, in titration neutralization point is the same as end point/equivalence point; if base is stronger than acid, the neutralized solution is slightly basic so pH is greater than 7


as strength of acid increases Ka and pKa

Ka increases and pKa decreases, Ka and pKA values depend on the strength of the acid not its concentration


neutral aqueous solution

pH = pOH, at 25 degrees celsius this is also equal to 7


strenght of acid

a measure of completeness of the reaction, the stronger the acid, the more eletrolytic, conducts electricity better due to more ions


common strong acids (6)

haloacids or oxyacids; HCl, HBr, HI, H2SO4, HNO3, HClO4


weak acids

weak acids only dissociate partially when dissolved in water, acids with Ka < 1 are weak; HAVE WEAK CONJUGATE BASES


titrant requirements

a titrant is usually a strong reagent (strong bsase or strong acid) to ensure complete reaction


common strong bases types (5)

hydrides (H-), alkoxides (CH3O-), amides (NH2-), hydroxides (OH-), carbides (CH3-)


common weak bases (2)

conjugates of strong acids, carboxylates (RCO2-), alkyl amines (RNH2)


Haloacids, determining increase in acidity

the greater the halide ion, the greater the acidity, also the larger the conjugate base ion the more stable and thus a stronger halo acid, the longer the bond the weaker; therefore descending down a column acidity increases: HI> HBR> HCl> HF


determining acidity based on columns and rows of the periodic table

down a column, atomic radius dicates strength of acid, the larger the conjugate base ion the weaker the bond between it and H and the stronger the acid; across a row electronegativity dictates acid strenght the more electronegative the stronger the acid


oxyacids, determining acidity

the more oxygens bonded to the central atom, the more acidic the oxyacid because the oxygen draws electron density from the central atom (resonance effect), if there are a same number of oxygens, look at electronegavity (inductive effect)


cause of acid rain

hydration of non metal oxides leades to oxyacids, which causes acid rain