Basics of Acids and Bases

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1

pH 7.37-7.44

What is the standard pH of arterial blood?

2

pH 7.35-7.45

What is the standard pH of venous blood?

3

pH = -log [H+]

What equation does pH stand for?

4

Kw = [H+] * [OH-] = 10^-14

What equation describes Kw?

5

Ka = ([H+][A-]) / [HA]

What equation describes Ka?

6

pH = pKa + log ([A-] / [HA])

Describe the Henderson Hasselbach equation

7

phosphate H2PO4-

What buffers interstitial fluid?

8

bicarbonate H2CO3

What buffers extracellular fluid, especially the blood?

9

hemoglobin

What buffers erythocytes?

10

Carbonic Anhydrase, non-enzymatically

What catalyzes bicarbonate buffering in RBCs and the kidneys? What about in the plasma?

11

H+ + HCO3- = H2CO3 = H2O + CO2 (respirated)

Describe the rxns of bicarbonate under increasing acidity

12

OH- + H2CO3- = H2O + HCO3-

Describe the rxns of bicarbonate under decreasing acidity

13

Increased plasma K+ as RBCs exchange K+ for H+

What happens to plasma potassium during acidemia?

14

Decreased plasma K+ as RBCs exchange H+ for K+

What happens to plasma potassium during alkalemia?

15

erythropoietin

What signal do the kidneys use to regulate RBC production in the bone marrow?

16

Maintain bicarbonate, excrete H+

What functions do the kidneys perform to buffer the blood?

17

70% dissolves in water in equilibrium w/ bicarbonate, 20% is carried as a carbamino group on hemoglobin, 10% is dissolved in the plasma

Once CO2 is produced by metabolism in the tissue, what is its distribution in various transport systems?

18

Oxygenated blood has a lower affinity for CO2 than deoxygenated blood

What is the Haldane effect?

19

Anion Gap = [Na+] - ([Cl-] + [HCO3-])

What is the equation for the anion gap in the blood?

20

Range 8-16, Mean 12

What is the normal range of the anion gap?

21

The presence of unaccounted anions/increased HCO3-

What does a high anion gap indicate?

22

2 x Na+(mEq/L) + glucose(mg/dL)/18 + BUN (mg/dL)/2.8
or
2 x [Na+] + [glucose] + [urea] (all in mmol/L)

What is the equation for blood osmolality?