Unit 5: Section 2 & 3 "Chemical Reactions and Acids/Bases"

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1

chemical reaction

process in which substances undergo chemical changes that result in the formation of new substances.

2

Precipitate

a solid that forms from a solution during a chemical reaction.

3

Chemical equation

A short way to show a chemical reaction, using symbols.

4

Reactants

substances that enter into a chemical reaction. They are on the left side of a chemical equation. REACTANTS -------- PRODUCTS

5

products

substances produced as a result of a chemical reaction. They are on the right side.

6

Open system

A system in which matter can enter from or escape to the surrounding.

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Closed system

A system in which no matter is allowed to enter or leave.

8

Coefficient

A number in front of a chemical formula in an equation that indicates how many molecules or atoms of each reactant & product are involved in a reaction.

9

Synthesis

A chemical reaction in which two or more simple substances combine to form a new, more complex substance. A + B --- AB

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Decomposition

A chemical reaction that breaks down reactants into simpler products. AB --- A + B

11

Replacement

A reaction in which one element replaces another in a compound or when two elements in different compounds trade places.

12

Activation energy

The minimum amount of energy needed to get a chemical reaction started.

13

Concentration

The amount of one material in a certain volume of another material.

14

Catalyst

a material that increases the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy.

15

Enzyme

A biological catalyst that lowers the activation energy of reactions in cells.

16

Inhibitors

a material that decreases the rate of a reaction.

17

Combustion

A rapid reaction between oxygen and ruel that results in fire.

18

Fuel

A material that releases energy when burned.

19

Acid

a substance that tastes sour, reacts with metals and carbonates, and turns blue litmus red. Corrosive The gradual wearing away of a metal element due to a chemical reaction.

20

Indicator

A compound that changes color in the presence of an acid or a base.

21

Base

A substance that tastes bitter, feels slippery, and turns red litmus paper blue.

22

Hydrogen ion (H+)

A positively charged ion (H+) formed of a hydrogen atom that has lost its electron.

23

Hydroxide ion (OH-)

A negatively charged ion made of oxygen & hydrogen (OH-)

24

pH Scale

A range of values used to express the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.

25

Neutralization

A reaction of an acid with a base, yielding a solution that is not as acidic or basic as the starting solutions were.

26

Salt

An ionic compound made from the neutralization of an acid with a base.