Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids
Macromolecules made mainly from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes; used for long-term storage of energy and carbon, and for building structural parts of cell membranes; fatty acids and glycerol make up the simple fats most common in our diets (p. 46).
Lipids containing a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid chains; chemical form in which most fats exist in food and in the body (p. 46).
A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms; tend to be oily liquids at room temperature; found in plants (p. 47).
a lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms; tend to be solid at room temperature; found in animals (p. 46).
A lipid made of a phosphate group and two fatty acids; consists of a hydrophilic polar head and two non-polar hydrophobic tails; forms cell membranes.
Many of this type of lipid serve as chemical messengers or as parts of the cell membrane; examples include cholesterol, testosterone, and estrogen (p. 46).
A soft yellow wax secreted by glands in the ear canal; ear wax; an example of wax--a type of lipid.
Macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth, repair, and to make up enzymes; a polymer made of amino acids (p. 47).
Compounds with an amino group (-NH₂) on one end and a carboxyl group (-COOH) on the other end; the monomers that make up a protein (p. 47).
A protein that is used as a catalyst (speeds up a chemical reaction) (p. 48).
A covalent bond between the acid group of one molecule and the amino group of another.
The sequence of amino acids in a protein chain (p. 48).
The twisting or folding of the amino acids within a protein chain (p. 48).
The folding of the protein chain itself; the 3 dimensional folded structure of a protein. (p. 48).
The specific arrangement of a protein consisting of more than one chain (p. 48).
Polymers assembled from individual nucleotides; used to store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information; the two kinds of nucleic acids are ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (p. 47).
Monomer that makes up nucleic acids; consists of three parts: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base (p. 47).
Forms the genes; in eukaryotic cells it is found in the cell nucleus and mitochondria; codes for proteins.
Works with DNA to carry out instructions of the genetic code; found in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and ribosomes.
Nitrogen base that pairs with thymine.
Nitrogen base that pairs with adenine.
Nitrogen base that pairs with guanine.
Nitrogen base that pairs with cystosine.
Nitrogen base that pairs with adenine in RNA.
Carries the genetic code for a protein from the nucleus to the ribosomes where the proteins are assembled.
Each half of an original DNA molecule serves as a templete for a new strand, and the two new DNA molecules each have one old and one new strand.
The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy (ATP).
Small particle of RNA and protein that produces protein following instructions from the nucleus.