Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids

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1

lipids

Macromolecules made mainly from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes; used for long-term storage of energy and carbon, and for building structural parts of cell membranes; fatty acids and glycerol make up the simple fats most common in our diets (p. 46).

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triglycerides

Lipids containing a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid chains; chemical form in which most fats exist in food and in the body (p. 46).

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unsaturated fat

A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms; tend to be oily liquids at room temperature; found in plants (p. 47).

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saturated fat

a lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms; tend to be solid at room temperature; found in animals (p. 46).

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phospholipid

A lipid made of a phosphate group and two fatty acids; consists of a hydrophilic polar head and two non-polar hydrophobic tails; forms cell membranes.

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steroids

Many of this type of lipid serve as chemical messengers or as parts of the cell membrane; examples include cholesterol, testosterone, and estrogen (p. 46).

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cerumen

A soft yellow wax secreted by glands in the ear canal; ear wax; an example of wax--a type of lipid.

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protein

Macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth, repair, and to make up enzymes; a polymer made of amino acids (p. 47).

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amino acids

Compounds with an amino group (-NH₂) on one end and a carboxyl group (-COOH) on the other end; the monomers that make up a protein (p. 47).

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enzyme

A protein that is used as a catalyst (speeds up a chemical reaction) (p. 48).

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peptide bond

A covalent bond between the acid group of one molecule and the amino group of another.

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primary structure

The sequence of amino acids in a protein chain (p. 48).

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secondary structure

The twisting or folding of the amino acids within a protein chain (p. 48).

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tertiary structure

The folding of the protein chain itself; the 3 dimensional folded structure of a protein. (p. 48).

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quaternary structure

The specific arrangement of a protein consisting of more than one chain (p. 48).

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nucleic acids

Polymers assembled from individual nucleotides; used to store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information; the two kinds of nucleic acids are ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (p. 47).

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nucleotide

Monomer that makes up nucleic acids; consists of three parts: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base (p. 47).

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DNA

Forms the genes; in eukaryotic cells it is found in the cell nucleus and mitochondria; codes for proteins.

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RNA

Works with DNA to carry out instructions of the genetic code; found in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and ribosomes.

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adenine

Nitrogen base that pairs with thymine.

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thymine

Nitrogen base that pairs with adenine.

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cytosine

Nitrogen base that pairs with guanine.

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guanine

Nitrogen base that pairs with cystosine.

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uracil

Nitrogen base that pairs with adenine in RNA.

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mRNA

Carries the genetic code for a protein from the nucleus to the ribosomes where the proteins are assembled.

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semi-conservative replication

Each half of an original DNA molecule serves as a templete for a new strand, and the two new DNA molecules each have one old and one new strand.

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mitochondria

The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy (ATP).

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ribosome

Small particle of RNA and protein that produces protein following instructions from the nucleus.

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hydrophilic

Water-loving.

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hydrophobic

Water-hating.