Midterm 1 Lecture Qs
Which fraction expands when you have a cold?
The ______ is the fluid portion of the blood?
What does it mean if you see nucleated red blood cells in a blood sample?
You are looking at a sample from someone who is making lost of erythrocyte very quickly as in someone suffering from or recovering from illness
Or you are looking at a sample from newborn
Pernicious anemia is the the inability of the body to absorb Vitamin B what symptoms?
which of the symptoms would you expect to see in anemia?
chills, fatigue, paleness and shortness of breath (all of above)
leukopenia is an abnormally low number of leukocytes? T or F
Does aplastic anemia cause leukopenia?
All lymphocytes are leukocytes but not all leukocytes are lymphocytes
T or F
what would an elevated neutrophil count indicate?
An acute bacterial infection
what about elevated monocytes count?
Infection, parasite, bacterial infection, virus
People with _____ certain blood type make both anti A and Anti B antibodies,
- D) type O, doesn’t have Antigens A or B so it makes antibodies for both
What would happen if you transfused type A blood into someone with anti-A antibodies?
Clumping will occur, also transfusion reaction: the recipient anti-bodies attack the donor bloods, blood vessels are clogged and the red blood cells as lysed
If you add Anti A and get clumping and the add anti B and get clumping then you know you Have ______ blood type
Added Anti A and get clumping, added Anti B no clumping then that means you have _____ Blood
Added anti B and got clumping, then it means you have______
Added anti A and Anti B got no clumping, meaning you have ______
if someone if blood type A+ what antigen does that person make?
A and Rh factor
- If someone if Type A+ and has had previous expose to Rh+ positive blood what antibodies does she make?
- Does she make anti A? No
- Anti B? Yes
- Anti Rh? No
If someone has blood A+ what type of blood can she receive?
- Type A and O (because there is no AB Antigen) AND Rh+ and RH-
- no AB Blood because she makes anti B
What blood type can receive blood from anyone?
AB+ (Universal recipient)
What blood type can donate to anyone?
(O- ,Universal donor)
What effect will a platelet factor 3 deficiency have on clotting?
A. Decreased clotting
B. Increased clotting
C. no effect
Many clotting factors are made in the liver. These liver cells need vitamin K to make these factors. What might the symptoms of vitamin K deficiency be?
B. Heavy menstrual bleeding
D. All of the above
Hemostasis leads to _______
A. Heme production
B. red blood cell production
C. Stoppage of bleeding
D. white blood cell production
Agglutinogens are glycoprotein found on the surface of erythrocytes. A person who lacks agglutinogens A and B would have blood type_______.
The enzyme _________ digest fibrin clots
What is an embolus?
A. An anticoagulant
B. A protein in the coagulation pathway
C. A blood clot that has broken loose and is floating freely in the bloodstream
D. A Stroke
Which of the following is Not a phase of Hemostasis
B. Vascular spasm
D. Platelet plug formation
The slowest step in the clotting process is _____
A. formation of prothrombin activator
B. Binding fibrin strands
C. release of PF3
D. Production of
Choose the compatible transfusion
A. Donate type A blood to a recipient with type B blood
B. Donate type O blood to a recipiet with type AB Blood
C. Donate type B blood to a recipient with type O blood
D Donate type AB blood to a recipient with type B blood
The Production of platelets is called _____
If you are missing factor 11 you have____
A. Hemophelia B: males only
B. Hemophelia A: only in males
C Hemophelia C: Men and women
Why cant cardiac muscle go into tetany?
Tetany is the state of complete tetanus where there is continual contraction.
But the absolute refactory period when the muscle cannont be stimulated again is long almost as long as the contraction period. so the muscle will always be starting to relax before it can possibly be stimulated again
of the following layers of the heart wall which consumes the most energy
D. Visceral pericardium
The heart is actually _____ pumps
A. 3 pumps
B. 2 pumps
C. 1 pump
which chamber receives blood from the superior and interior vena cavae?
A. right atrium
B Left atrium
C. Left ventricle
D. right ventricle
which chamber receives blood from the pulmonary veins?
A left atrium
B Left ventricle
C Right atrium
D right ventricle
Which heart chamber pumps unoxygenated blood out the pulmonary trunk
A. right ventricle
B. left atrium
C. right atrium
D Left ventricle
What happens when the coronary circulation is blocked?
Agina pectoris: pain is caused by fleeting deficiency in blood delivery
Myocardial infaraction: heart attack. prolonged blockage causes heart tissue to die (muscles does not grow back)
Which of the following is NOT a difference between cardiac and skeletal muscles?
Cardiac muscle does not use the sliding filament mechanism for contraction; skeletal muscle does
(statement is false they both do)
Both skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle are striated and both utilize the sliding filament mechanism for contraction
Which of the following terms refers to a lack of oxygen supply to heart muscle cells?
What causes the aortic semi lunar valve to close?
back flow of blood in the aorta (towards the left ventricle) closes the aortic semilunar valve
which of the following would increase heart rate?
A. increased activity of the parasympathetic nervous system
B. decreased activity of the sympathetic nervous system
C. epinephrine and norepinephrine
what would happen if another small region of the heart became hyperexcitable?
it would cause independent local contractions, maybe even faster than the sinoatrial node
Could cause premature contractions called extrasystole
The hearts pacemaker is the ___________
A. atrioventricular bundle
B. atrioventricular node
C. purkinje fibers
D. sinoatrial node
What does the T wave of the ECG represent?
A. ventricular repolarization
B. Ventricular depolarization
C. atrial depolarization
D. atrial repolarization
How will decreasing the concentration of Ca+ in the blood affect heart rate?
Hypocalcemia will lower heart rate
influx of Ca from the blood is necessary for depolarization in pacemaker cells and contraction in the other cardiac fibers
An abnormal P wave could be indicative of ______
A. Incomplete ventricular repolarization
B. enlarged Atria
Hypercalcemia could cause _______
A. prolonged T wave
B. hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone
C. Both responses are correct
Describe the pressures in the atria and ventricules that would cause the opening of the AV Valves?
A. pressures in the atria and ventricles would be equal
B pressure in the atria would be greater than the pressure in the Ventricles
C. pressure in the ventricles would be greater than in the atria
Put the phases of the cardiac cycle in the correct order starting after ventricular filling
Isovolumetric contraction, ventricular ejection, isovolumetric relaxation
What does the ECG wave tracing represent?
A. electrical activity in the heart
B contraction of the heart
which part of the conduction system initiates the depolarizing impulse which spreads throughout the heart?
A. AV Bundle
B. SA node
C. AV node
D. Purkinje Fibers
What does the QRS complex represent in the ECG WAVE TRACING?
A. atrial depolarization
B atrial repolarization
C. ventricular repolarization
D. ventricular depolarization
contraction of the atria results from which wave of depolarization on the ECG tracing?
A. ORS Complex
B. P wave
How would a decrease in blood volume affect both stroke volume and cardiac output?
A. decreased stroke volume and no change in cardiac output
B. decreased stroke volume and decreased cardiac output
C. increased stroke volume and increased cardiac output
D. no change in stroke volume and decreased cardiac output
The aorta is an example of an_______
A. muscular artery
C. elastic artery
What type of tissue is found in the walls of the arteries but not in the walls of the capillaries and venules?
B. smooth muscle
D. elastic tissue
Which capillaries are the most common in the body?
B. continuous capillaries
D. fenestrated capillaries
Say that you are in an airplane and immobilized for several hours. What might happen to the blood in the veins returning from your legs?
deep vein thrombosis: blood clots in the veins
Which of the following does not contain a mucosa associated lymphatic tissue?
C. Peyer's patch
Lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called _______
C. peyers patch
What is bubo?
A. A wall in a lymph node
B. a lobe of the spleen
C. an infected peyer's patch
D. an infected lymph node
Which of the following would the body perceive as an antigen?
C. mismatched red blood cell
D. all of above
Which of the following is NOT an important source of resistance to blood flow?
A. vessel diameter
B total blood volume
C vessel length
D blood viscosity
Why is it important that blood pressure drop to lower levels as it reaches the capillary beds?
Because capillaries are fragile and extremely permeable
if blood pressure is increased at the arterial baroreceptors what would happen with the activity level of the parasympathetic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system?
increased PNS activity and decreased SNS activity
stimulation of the adrenal medulla would result in which of the following?
an increased in heart rate and contractility
which of the following would cause vasodilation of arterioles?
decreased activity of the sympathetic nervous system
in the capillaries, hydrostatic pressure (HP) is exerted by _____
A. blood pressure
B proteins in the blood
The net hydrostatic pressure (HP) is the hydrostatic pressure in the ____________ minus hydrostatic pressure in the ________
Capillary, interstitial fluid
which organs blood flow patterns results in low oxygen levels causing vasoconstriction and high oxygen levels causing vasodilation?
B. Skeletal muscles
Which pressure draws fluid into the capillary
net osmotic pressure
Re absorption of fluid into the capillary takes place at the arterial end or venous end of the capillary?