BMS Amino Acids

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 8 years ago by chemistry_goo
8 views
Grade levels:
6th grade, 7th grade, 8th grade, 9th grade, 10th grade, 11th grade, 12th grade, College: First year, College: Second year, College: Third year, College: Fourth year
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

What are AAs buildingi blocks of?

Proteins, glucose, and ketones

2

What is physiological pH?

7.4

3

Zwitterion

AA at neutral pH

4

Essential AA

AA that contain carbon backbones that can't be made by the body or can't make enough of in the body

5

Nonessential AA

-Can be synthesized because carbon skeletons can be make adequately from other precursors
-still require a source of NH3

6

Source of carbon skeletons

intermediates formed from glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, TCA cycle

7

Source of amino groups

-derived from NH3
-NH3 is necessary but can also be TOXIC

8

How does the body maintain NH3 homeostasis?

liver converts excess NH3 into urea, which is then eliminated by the kidneys

9

What two AAs does the body use to both make use of available NH3 and get rid of excesss NH3

Glutamine, Glutamate

10

Glutamate

-NH3 (NH4+ in H20) can be added to alpha-ketoglutarate to make glutamate
-reaction goes both directions, GLU is also used to get rid of NH3 via urea/kidneys
-can give amino group away to create another AA by TRANSAMINATION

11

AST, ALT

asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase
-serum levels of these enzymes can be measured and used as markers of cellular damage

12

Glutamine

-can be synthesized from glutamate
-major AA that circulates in the blood stream
-primary responsible for taking NH3 from peripheral tissues to kidney where it can be excreted

13

Kidney Excretion of NH4+

-Glutaminase releases NH3 from Gln (glutamine)
-NH3 is exreted into urine as NH4+

14

What enzyme release NH3 from glutamine?

Glutaminase

15

What enzyme releases NH3 from glutamate?

Glutamate dehyrogenase

16

What is NH3 excreted into the urine as?

NH4+

17

Can excess AAs be stored in the body?

No.

18

What organ degrades AAs?

liver

19

What components are AAs degraded into?

-amino groups--> urea
-c-skeletons--> acetyl CoA, TCA intermediates
-ketone bodies
-glucose

20

Where is urea synthesized?

liver

21

What happens if you have excess of NH3?

neurological sx, coma, death, neurological defects (mental retardation)