Science Vocab Reaction Rates, Solutions, Acids/bases

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1

Reaction Rate

rate at which reactants change into products over time

2

Limiting Reagent

any reactant that is used up first in a chemical reaction; it determines the amount of product that can be formed in the reaction

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Excess Reagent

the reactant that is not completely used up in a reaction

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Activation Energy

energy needed to get a reaction started

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Endothermic

(of a chemical reaction or compound) occurring or formed with absorption of heat

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Exothermic

(of a chemical reaction or compound) occurring or formed with evolution of heat

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Catalyst

(chemistry) a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected

8

Inhibitors

An agent that slows or interferes with a chemical action

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Chemical Equilibrium

a chemical reaction and its reverse proceed at equal rates

10

Le Chatelier's Principle

States that if a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that relieves the stress.

11

Polar

having a pair of equal and opposite charges

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Hydrogen Bond

a chemical bond consisting of a hydrogen atom between two electronegative atoms (e.g., oxygen or nitrogen) with one side be a covalent bond and the other being an ionic bond

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Solvent

a statement that solves a problem or explains how to solve the problem

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Solute

the dissolved substance in a solution

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Solution

a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances

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Dissociation

(chemistry) the temporary or reversible process in which a molecule or ion is broken down into smaller molecules or ions

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Saturated

containing the highest amount of substance

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Dissolve

to cause a dry substance to pass into a liquid

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Solubility

the quantity of a particular substance that can dissolve in a particular solvent (yielding a saturated solution)

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Concentration

the strength of a solution

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Super Saturated

a solution containing more solute than can theoretically dissolve at a given temperature

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Acid

a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution

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Base

a support or foundation

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pH

(chemistry) p(otential of) H(ydrogen)

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Neutralization

a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base interact with the formation of a salt