Biology 1 Exam 2
Metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complete molecules
Partial degradation of sugars that occurs without O2
Consumes organic molecules and oxygen and yields ATP
- Consumes compounds other than oxygen
Includes both anaerobic and aerobic respiration but often refers to aerobic resp.
Reactions that consume energy
A non-spontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy.
In glycolysis how many ATP are made?
2 ATP are made in this reaction
The enzyme-catalyzed formation of ATP by direct transfer of a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
Organic compound with a backbone of three carbon atoms. Two molecules form as end products of glycolysis
The totality of an organisms chemical reactions
The study of how energy flows through living organisms
form of energy
Energy associated with motion
Kinetic energy associated with random movement of atoms or molecules
Thermal energy in transfer between objects
Energy that matter posses Because of its location or structure
Potential energy available for releasing chemical reaction
The study of energy transformations
First law of thermodynamics
Also called the principle of conservation of energy
Energy can be transferred in transform but it cannot be created or destroyed
Second law of thermodynamics
the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.
The total entropy of a system and its surroundings can remain constant in ideal cases where the system is in equilibrium
Measure of molecular disorder or randomness
energy transfer increases this
3 main kinds of work a cell does
- Chemical work: pushing endergonic reactions
- Transport work: pumping substances against the direction of spontaneous movement
- Mechanical: muscle
Chemical work in cells
Pushing endergonic reactions
Tansport work for a cell
Pumping substances against the direction of spontaneous movement
Mechanical work for a cell
Contraction of the muscle
How cells manage energy resources to do work
The use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one
recipient molecule that receives a phosphate from ATP making it more reactive than the original molecule
effective way of conserving energy in metabolic reactions
Transport and mechanical work work in the cell are powered how?
ATP hydrolysis powers this in the cell......
chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
lowers activation energy barrier
region on the enzyme where the substrate binds
The reactant that an enzyme acts on