Biology 1 Exam 2

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1

Catabolic Pathway

Metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complete molecules

2

Fermentation

Partial degradation of sugars that occurs without O2

3

Aerobic respiration

Consumes organic molecules and oxygen and yields ATP

  • Consumes compounds other than oxygen
4

Cellular respiration

Includes both anaerobic and aerobic respiration but often refers to aerobic resp.

5

Endergonic Reactions

Reactions that consume energy

A non-spontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.

6

Exergonic reactions

A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy.

7

In glycolysis how many ATP are made?

2 ATP are made in this reaction

8

Substrate-level Phosphorylation

The enzyme-catalyzed formation of ATP by direct transfer of a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.

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Pyruvate

Organic compound with a backbone of three carbon atoms. Two molecules form as end products of glycolysis

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Metabolism

The totality of an organisms chemical reactions

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Bioenergetics

The study of how energy flows through living organisms

form of energy

12

Kinetic energy

Energy associated with motion

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Thermal energy

Kinetic energy associated with random movement of atoms or molecules

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Heat

Thermal energy in transfer between objects

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Potential energy

Energy that matter posses Because of its location or structure

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Chemical energy

Potential energy available for releasing chemical reaction

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Thermodynamics

The study of energy transformations

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First law of thermodynamics

Also called the principle of conservation of energy

Energy can be transferred in transform but it cannot be created or destroyed

19

Second law of thermodynamics

the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.

The total entropy of a system and its surroundings can remain constant in ideal cases where the system is in equilibrium

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Entropy

Measure of molecular disorder or randomness

energy transfer increases this

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3 main kinds of work a cell does

  • Chemical work: pushing endergonic reactions
  • Transport work: pumping substances against the direction of spontaneous movement
  • Mechanical: muscle
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Chemical work in cells

Pushing endergonic reactions

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Tansport work for a cell

Pumping substances against the direction of spontaneous movement

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Mechanical work for a cell

Contraction of the muscle

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How cells manage energy resources to do work

energy coupling

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Energy coupling

The use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one

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Phosphorylated intermediate

recipient molecule that receives a phosphate from ATP making it more reactive than the original molecule

effective way of conserving energy in metabolic reactions

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Transport and mechanical work work in the cell are powered how?

ATP hydrolysis powers this in the cell......

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Catalyst

chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction

lowers activation energy barrier

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Active site

region on the enzyme where the substrate binds

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Substrate

The reactant that an enzyme acts on