Concept 8 - Fluid & Electrolytes

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created 10 months ago by mens05
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Concept 8 - Fluid & Electrolytes
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nursing
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1

A patient has acute gastroenteritis with watery diarrhea. Which statement by this patient would indicate that the nurse’s teaching has been effective?

  1. “I should drink a lot of tap water today.”
  2. “I need to take more calcium tablets today.”
  3. “I should avoid fruits with potassium in them.”
  4. “I need to drink liquids with some sodium in them.”

D. “I need to drink liquids with some sodium in them.”

2

A patient has newly diagnosed hyperparathyroidism. What should the nurse expect to find during an assessment at the beginning of the nursing shift?

  1. Lethargy and constipation from hypercalcemia
  2. Positive Trousseau’s sign from hypercalcemia
  3. Lethargy and constipation from hypocalcemia
  4. Positive Trousseau’s sign from hypocalcemia

A. Lethargy and constipation from hypercalcemia

3

A patient has a tumor that secretes excessive antidiuretic hormone (ADH). He is confused and lethargic. His partner wants to know how a change in blood sodium can cause these symptoms. What should the nurse teach the patient’s partner?

  1. Decreased sodium in the blood causes the blood volume to decrease so that not enough oxygen reaches the brain.
  2. Decreased sodium in the blood causes brain cells to swell so that they do not work as effectively.
  3. Increased sodium in the blood causes the blood volume to increase so that too much oxygen reaches the brain.
  4. Increased sodium in the blood causes brain cells to shrivel so that they do not work as effectively.

B. Decreased sodium in the blood causes brain cells to swell so that they do not work as effectively.

4

A patient’s lab results indicate a potassium level of 5.6 mEq/L. Which of the following conditions would the nurse expect to see a potassium value at this level?

  1. Diarrhea
  2. Cushing’s
  3. Massive third-degree burn
  4. Prolonged laxative use

C. Massive third-degree burn

5

The home health nurse should assess a patient who has chronic diarrhea for which fluid and electrolyte imbalances? Select all that apply.

  1. Extracellular fluid volume (ECV) excess
  2. Extracellular fluid volume (ECV) deficit
  3. Hypokalemia
  4. Hyperkalemia
  5. Hypocalcemia
  6. Hypercalcemia

B. Extracellular fluid volume (ECV) deficit

C. Hypokalemia

E. Hypocalcemia