Amino Acids Structure and Function

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1

Polar Amino Acids (Hydrophilic) and Non-Polar Amino Acids (Hydrophobic)

2 Major Classifications of Amino Acids

2

Outside

Where must large side chains be located when folding?

3

Disulfide Bridge

What can two cysteine molecules form? This can be in the same polypeptide or in a different polypeptide.

4

Disulfide Bridge

Holds proteins together like super glue.

5

Ionic Bonds

What kind of bonds do charged amino acids establish with each other during protein folding or interaction?

6

Hydrophilic

All charged proteins are ____________?

7

Acidic

What type of molecule is H3N+?

8

Basic

What type of molecule is H2N?

9

7.4

What is the physiological pH?

10

L-stereoisomers

All amino acids in body are what type of stereoisomer?

11

Resonance

What makes the primary protein structure stiff?

12

Higher Order Structures

The characteristics of the amino acid side groups determine what?

13

Secondary Structure

Interactions between the amine and carbonyl group on the peptide chain.

14

R-groups

What are located below or above the beta-sheet?

15

Tertiary Structure

How the secondary structures interact. Polar-non-polar side chains group together. Allows domains to be made. Membrane proteins have hydrophobic regions. A lot of side group interactions. Forces non-polar amino acids to the center.

16

Cytosolic Protein

What protein forces non-polar amino acids to the center.

17

Quaternary Structure

Multiple peptide chains interacting together to make one molecule.

18

Dimer

2 peptide chains?

19

Tetramer

4 peptide chains?

20

Oligomer

5+ peptide chains?

21

Prions

Have exact same amino acid sequence but different folding. Multiple beta-sheets in the disease form.

22

Alzheimers

What other disease also has protein aggregation?

23

Creutzfeldt jacobs and Mad Cow Disease

What are examples of prion disease?

24

Beta-sheets and alpha-helices

Important to protein structure and function.

25

Domains (active/binding sites)

Where the action occurs. Sites that interact with other molecules.

26

Change in structure (prions/mutations)

Affect the outcome of the protein?