Amino Acids - Physiological Functions
GABA (derivative of glutamate), Gly
precursor for catecholamine NTs:
Dopamine (DA) - movement, pleasure
Norepinephrine (NE) - "fight or flight"
Epinephrine (Epi) - "fight or flight"
precursor of serotonin (5-HT)
*low levels of serotonin in the brain are linked to conditions like depression, anxiety, and aggression
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs):
increase 5-HT in the synaptic cleft, prolonging the effectiveness of the NT
Decarboxylation of ____ gives histamine
Immune and hypersensitivity (allergic) reactions (H1 receptor).
Regulation of gastric acid secretion (H2 receptor).
(diphenhydramine/Benadryl®, loratadine/Claritin®, fexofenadine /Allegra®)
relieve hypersensitive symptoms by blocking the action of histamine
(ranitidine/Zantac® and famotidine/Pepcid®)
relieve acid-peptic disorders (like PUD, GERD)
helps grow and repair body tissues and maintain the myelin sheaths that protect nerve cells
derivative of glucose; when more glucose is needed by the body as an energy source
(analog of Cys; acetyl group is attached to the amine)
vital role in treating acetaminophen overdose
Cleaves on carboxyl side of Lys and Arg
Cleaves on carboxyl side of aromatic amino acids (Tyr, Trp, Phe) and methionine
Cleaves amino end of small and uncharged amino acids. Val, Ala, Ser, and Gly.
Cleaves amino end of Tyr, Trp, and Phe
The three main digestive endopeptidases (commonly found in the small intestines)
enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in the interior of the polypeptide chain
enzymes that hydrolyze the peptide bond at the end terminal of the protein or peptide chain
cleaves peptide/proteins starting at the N-terminal amino acids
cleaves amino acids from the C-terminal end of the peptide/proteins
biological molecules found in blood, other body fluids, or tissues that are a sign of a normal or abnormal process, or of a condition or disease
Phe and Tyr (biomarkers)
liver injury (high quantities)
Sarcosine - derivative of glycine (biomarkers)
prostate cancer (high levels)
L-Dopa:Tyr ratio (biomarkers)
melanoma (increased ratio)
Chronic Renal Insufficiency (CRI) - (decrease in ___:Phe)