Amino Acids - Physiological Functions

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1

Glu, Asp

excitatory neurotransmitters

2

GABA (derivative of glutamate), Gly

inhibitatory neurotransmitters

3

Tyr

precursor for catecholamine NTs:

Dopamine (DA) - movement, pleasure
Norepinephrine (NE) - "fight or flight"
Epinephrine (Epi) - "fight or flight"

4

Trp

precursor of serotonin (5-HT)

*low levels of serotonin in the brain are linked to conditions like depression, anxiety, and aggression

5

Fluoxetine (Prozac)
Sertraline (Zoloft)
Citalopram (Celexa)

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs):

increase 5-HT in the synaptic cleft, prolonging the effectiveness of the NT

6

His

Decarboxylation of ____ gives histamine

7

Histamine

mediates:

Immune and hypersensitivity (allergic) reactions (H1 receptor).
Regulation of gastric acid secretion (H2 receptor).

8

Antihistamines

(diphenhydramine/Benadryl®, loratadine/Claritin®, fexofenadine /Allegra®)

relieve hypersensitive symptoms by blocking the action of histamine

9

H2 Blockers

(ranitidine/Zantac® and famotidine/Pepcid®)

relieve acid-peptic disorders (like PUD, GERD)

10

His

helps grow and repair body tissues and maintain the myelin sheaths that protect nerve cells

11

Gln

derivative of glucose; when more glucose is needed by the body as an energy source

12

N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC)

(analog of Cys; acetyl group is attached to the amine)

vital role in treating acetaminophen overdose

13

Trypsin (endopeptidase)

Cleaves on carboxyl side of Lys and Arg

14

Chymotrypsin (endopeptidase)

Cleaves on carboxyl side of aromatic amino acids (Tyr, Trp, Phe) and methionine

15

Elastase (endopeptidase)

Cleaves amino end of small and uncharged amino acids. Val, Ala, Ser, and Gly.

16

Pepsin (endopeptidase)

Cleaves amino end of Tyr, Trp, and Phe

17

Trypsin

Chymotrypsin

Elastase

The three main digestive endopeptidases (commonly found in the small intestines)

18

Endopeptidases

enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in the interior of the polypeptide chain

19

Exopeptidases

enzymes that hydrolyze the peptide bond at the end terminal of the protein or peptide chain

20

Aminopeptidase (exopeptidase)

cleaves peptide/proteins starting at the N-terminal amino acids

21

Carboxypeptidase (exopeptidase)

cleaves amino acids from the C-terminal end of the peptide/proteins

22

biomarkers

biological molecules found in blood, other body fluids, or tissues that are a sign of a normal or abnormal process, or of a condition or disease

23

Phe and Tyr (biomarkers)

liver injury (high quantities)

24

Sarcosine - derivative of glycine (biomarkers)

prostate cancer (high levels)

25

L-Dopa:Tyr ratio (biomarkers)

melanoma (increased ratio)

26

Tyr (biomarkers)

Chronic Renal Insufficiency (CRI) - (decrease in ___:Phe)