Acids and Bases 2

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1

H+

proton

2

H-A

bronsted lowry acid

3

B:

bronsted lowry base

4

bronsted lowry acid must contain

hydrogen atom

5

bronsted lowry acid is a

proton donor

6

bronsted lowry base is a

proton acceptor

7

bronsted lowry base must be able to form

a bond to a proton

8

a base must contain

aan available election pair that can be easily donated to a new bond -- lone paire or electron pairs in pi bonds

9

net charge of B

zero or (-)

10

net charge of H-A

zero, (+), or (-)

11

when can a compound be an acid and a base

contains both hydrogen atoms ad lone pairs - depending on their reaction

12

what happens in an acid base reaction

one bond is broken and one bond is formed

13

loss of a proton from an acid forms its

conjucate base

14

gain of a proton by a base forms its

conjucate acid

15

HCL

strong acid

16

h2so4

strong acid

17

OH-

strong base

18

when only one starting material (reactant side) contains a hydrogen it must be

the acid

19

when only one starting material has a lone pair r pi bond it must be

the base

20

a starting material with a net pos charge is usually the

acid

21

a starting material with a net negative charge is usually the

base

22

acid strength

tendanccy of an acid to donate a proton

23

the more readily a compound donates a porton

the stronger the acid

24

thestronger the acid

the further the equillibrium lies to the right and the larger the Ka

25

the smaller the pKa

the stronger the acid

26

the Ka with the smaller negative exponent

is the stronger acid

27

an inverse relationship exists btw

acidity and basicity

28

a stron acid readily donates a proton, forming

a weak conjucate base

29

a strong base readily accepts a proton forming

a wear conjucate acid

30

increasing pKa

as acidity is decreasing

31

in a proton transfer reaction the

stronger aicd reacts with the stronger base to form the weaker acid and weaker base

32

equillibrium always favors the formation of the

weaker acid and base

33

to compare the acidity of any two acids

1. always draw the conjucate bases
2. determine which conjucate base is more sstable
3. the mroe stable the conjucate base, the more acidic the acid

34

across a row on the periodic table the acidity of H-A increases as

the electronegativity of A increases

35

elements when going down the column of periodic table:

_____ is more impr than electronegativity b/c

size mroe imp because its size can stabalize the negative charge

36

down a column of the periodic table he acidity of H-A increases as

the siz of A increases

37

when determining acidity DOWN a column

zie more important

38

the acidity of H-A increases both

left to right across a row and down a column of the periodic table

39

inductive effect

pull of electron density through sigma bonds caused by electronegativity differences of atoms

40

the acidity of H-A increases when

the conjucate base is resonance stabilized

41

the higher the percent s character of the hybrid orbital

the mroe stable the conjucate base

42

the acidity of H-A increased as

the percent s-character of the A:- increases

43

h bonded to C atoms is usually

less acidic that H bonded to any heteroatom

44

relative acidity of C-H, N-H, and O-H

C-H<N-H <O-H

45

three common neg charged bases

1. H⁻
2. NH₂⁻
3. OH⁻

46

carbanions

neg charged, strong base

47

lewis acid

electron pair acceptor

48

lewis base

electron pair donor

49

any reaction in which one species donates an electron pair to another species

lewis acid base reaction

50

electron rish species react with

electron poor species

51

lewis acid aka

electrophile

52

the lower the pKa

the stronger the acid

53

the stronger the acid

the weaker the conjucate base

54

in proton transfer reactions,

equilibrium favors the weaker acid and the weaker base

55

an acid can be depronated by

the conjucate base of any acid having a higher pKa

56

strong acids

HCl
HBr
HI
H₂SO₄
HNO₃

57

Strong Bases

NaOH
KOH

58

the lower the Pka

the stronger the acid

59

the larger the Ka

the stronger the acid

60

the stronger the acid the _____ the conj. base

weaker