Water, Salts, Acids & Bases

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1

Six Characteristics of Water

Polarity, Cohesion, Hydrogen Bonds, High Heat Capacity, Chemical Reactivity, and Cushioning

2

Polarity

results when electrons are shared unequally among atoms that are covalently bonded together

3

Cohesion

molecules tend to stick together as a result of hydrogen bonding; the measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid

4

Hydrogen Bonds

hydrogen is weakly attracted to a partial negative charge present on another compound or molecule

5

High Heat Capacity/High Heat of Vaporization

water resists change in temperature

6

Chemical Reactivity

water is a good solvent; it's involved in chemical reactions in your body

7

Cushioning

provides cushioning around many vital organs

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Intracellular Fluid

the nucleoplasm and cytosol, fluid inside cells

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Extracellular fluid

fluid found outside cells

10

Interstitial fluid

fluids that bathes the exterior of our cells; contains many nutrients

11

Plasma

fluid found in blood

12

Electrolytes

substances that ionize when dissolved in water such as salts, acids and bases

13

Salts

substances that ionize in solution; a type of electrolyte

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Acids

substances that donate H+ ion when dissolved in water

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Bases

substances that donate OH- when dissolved in water

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Examples of Acids

stomach acids, saliva, urine, vaginal fluids

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Examples of Bases

blood, semen, pancreatic juices

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pH

the measure of how many hydrogen ions are in a solution

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Neutral pH

7

20

Acidic pH

below 7

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Alkaline pH

above 7