Fatty acids

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1

laurate

a 12 carbon, saturated fatty acid; also known as n-dodecanoate

2

myristate

a 14 carbon, saturated fatty acid. also known as n-tetradecanoate

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palmitate

a 16 carbon, saturated fatty acid. also known as n-hexadecanoate; most common fatty acid present in animals, plants, and microorganisms; pKa = 4.5

4

stearate

an 18 carbon, saturated fatty acid. also known as n-octadecanoate

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oleate

an 18 carbon, unsaturated fatty acid with one double bond. Designated 18:1. Also known as cis-9-octadecanoate

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linoleate

an 18 carbon, unsaturated fatty acid with 2 double bonds; designated as 18:2. Also known as cis-9, 12- octadecadienoate

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linolenate

an 18 carbon, unsaturated fatty acid with 3 double bonds; designated as 18:3. also know as all cis-9, 12, 15 - octadecatrienoate

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arachidonate

a 20 carbon, unsaturated fatty acid with 4 double bonds; designated 20:4. also known as all cis-5, 8, 11, 14 - eicosatetraenoate

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saturated

fats with the maximum number of hydrogens attached to their carbon backbone; no double bonds between the carbons

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unsaturated

having less than the maximum number of hydrogens attached to carbon backbones of fatty acids; contain one or more double bonds between carbons

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phosphatidylcholine

most common phospholipid; often found on outer, extracellular side of the lipid bilayer

12

phosphatidylinositol

one of the most abundant phospholipids with a hydroxyl-rich side group attached; often found on the extracellular side of the lipid bilayer

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phosphatidylethanolamine

Neutrally charged, abundant phospholipid often found on the inner leaflet of cell membrane.

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phosphatidylserine

abundant phospholipid found on the inner membrane of the lipid bilyaer

15

sphingosine

an amino alcohol with a long unsaturated hydrocarbon chain; this chain is found on the interior of the lipid bilayer

16

sphingomyelin

the phospholipid formed when sphingosine bonds to a second fatty acid chain via an amide bond

17

cerebroside

the simplest glycolipid; derived from sphingosine; a single glucose or galactose is attached to the primary hydroxyl of sphingosine

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phosphatidate

the simplest phosphoglyceride; consists of two fatty acids attached to the C-1 and C-2 carbons of glycerol, with a phosphoric acid attached to C-3; only found in small amounts

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permeability of molecules

ions and polar molecules have low permeability across lipid bilayers; these molecules must either lose their charge or be transported via a porin

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micelle

polar head groups form the exterior to sequester the hydrophobic tails inside to avoid water; commonly formed by the salts of fatty acids as they only have one fatty acid tail

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critical micelle concentration (CMC)

minimum concentration of amphipathic molecules necessary to form a micelle

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fluid mosaic model

structural model of the plasma membrane where phospholipids and membrane proteins are free to move sideways within a lipid bilayer

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membrane proteins

proteins found integrated through, or associated with, the plasma membrane

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bacteriorhodopsin

an example of an integral protein; it spans the plasma membrane in a series of alpha-helices; the majority of its sequence consists of non-polar amino acids

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integral membrane protein

membrane-associated protein that interacts extensively with the lipid bilayer and may partially or entirely span the membrane

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peripheral membrane protein

membrane-associated protein that interacts only with the polar head groups of the lipid bilayer through electrostatic forces or hydrogen bonding, or are bound to the surface of integral proteins or anchored by a hydrophobic chain

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bioinformatics of membrane proteins

the use of computers to determine where a protein will be found on or in a membrane by analyzing its polar and non-polar regions; not always accurate

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three major plasma membrane components

phospholipids, glycolipids, and cholesterol

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ganglioside

contains sphingosine, a fatty acid and an oligosaccharide