Physical Medicine 204

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Posture and Body Mechanics
updated 10 months ago by Dizzy
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1

________ is the relative alignment of the various body segments with one another.

Posture

2

With good posture, the body's alignment is _______ so that stress applied to the body segments is ________ .

Balanced; minimal

3

Poor posture causes exaggerated stresses to various body segments. Over time, this continued stress causes anatomical _______ , which can alter the body's ability to preform.

Adaptations

4

_______ posture is used as the reference for posture evaluation.

Static standing

5

The plumb line of the normal static standing posture in the anterior view bisects the:

Nose, mouth, central sternum, umbilicus (can be slightly off), and pubic bones

6

In the anterior view of normal static standing posture, the earlobes, shoulders, clavicles, nipples, antecubital creases, fingertip ends, iliac crests, patellae, and medial malleoli should be _______ and _______ with one another.

Level; symmetrical

7

In the anterior view of normal static standing posture, the antecubital creases should be facing _______ and the palms of the hands facing the ________ . The wrists angles should be ______ .

Forward; thighs; equal

8

In the anterior view of normal static standing posture, the ribs should be _______ with no abnormal ________ .

Symmetrical; protrusions

9

In the anterior view of normal static standing posture, the patella should be facing ________. The medial longitudinal archers should be _______ and symmetrical bilaterally. The fick angle is within _______ degrees.

Straight ahead; present; 5-18

10

Body contours which are _______ in the anterior view of the static standing posture may indicate ________ .

Asymmetrical; muscle wasting, hypertrophy, nerve pathology, or it can be related to job/recreation (e.g., tennis player)

11

With static standing posture observations, the anterior head and neck should be in the _______ with no rotation of tilt. The jaw position should be _______ , as well as the upper trapezius and neck line.

Midline; symmetrical

12

The plumb line of the normal static standing posture in the posterior view bisects the:

Head and follows the spinous processes from the cervical through to the lumbar spine

13

In the posterior view of normal static standing posture the earlobes, shoulders, scapulae, hips, PSIS, gluteal fold, posterior knee creases and medial malleoli appear level and symmetrical _______ .

Left to right

14

In the posterior view of normal static standing posture, the achilles tendons descend _______ to the calcanei.

Straight

15

The scapulae lie against the rib cage between the 2nd and 7th ribs about _______ inches from the spinous processes.

2 to 3

16

When observing the posterior posture of a patient in the static standing posture, the root of the spine of the scapular is at the level of ________ , and the root of the spine of the scapula and inferior angle should be ________ .

T3; vertical (no rotation)

17

Winging of the scapula is often due to:

Weak serratus anterior muscle or scoliosis

18

In observing the scapular alignment, with the root of the scapular spine and inferior angle aligned vertically, elevation (higher then T2/T7) of the scapula is suggestive of:

Tight levator scapula and upper trapezius muscles

19

In observing the scapular alignment, with the root of the scapular spine and inferior angle aligned vertically, depression (lower then T2/T7) of the scapula is suggestive of:

Weak long levator scapula and upper trapezius muscles

20

In observing the scapular alignment, with the root of the scapular spine and inferior angle aligned vertically, retraction (adduction) of the scapula (less then 2-3 inches from the spinous processes) is suggestive of:

Tight rhomboids and middle trapezius muscles

21

In observing the scapular alignment, with the root of the scapular spine and inferior angle aligned vertically, protraction (abduction) of the scapula (more than 2-3 inches from the spinous processes) is suggestive of:

Weak rhomboids and middle trapezius muscles

22

In observing the scapular alignment, with the root of the scapular spine closer to the spinous processes when compared to the inferior angle, is known as a upward rotation, and is suggestive of:

Tight upper trapezius muscles

23

In observing the scapular alignment, with the root of the scapular spine farther away to the spinous processes when compared to the inferior angle, is known as a downward rotation, and is suggestive of:

Tight levator scapula and rhomboid muscles

24

In observing the scapular alignment, an anterior tilt is suggestive of:

Tight pectorals minor muscle

25

When observing the posterior posture of a patient in the static standing posture, unequal gluteal folds can indicate?

┬ŚMuscle weakness, nerve root problems, or nerve palsy

26

When observing the posterior posture of a patient in the static standing posture, a higher iliac crest can be seen with:

Leg length discrepancy or pelvic torsion

27

When observing the posterior posture of a patient in the static standing posture, unequal popliteal creases many indicate?

Leg length discrepancy

28

When observing the posterior posture of a patient in the static standing posture, the achilles tendon bending medially is often seen with?

Pes planus

29

When observing the posterior posture of a patient in the static standing posture, the medial longitudinal arches the foot should be present and symmetrical bilaterally. If they are pronated it is know as _______ , and if they are supinated it is known as _______ .

Pes planus (flat foot); pes cavus (arched foot)

30

When observing the posterior posture of a patient in the static standing posture, the ┬Śforefoot straight with heel angled inwards is known as _______ , and when the heel is angled outwards it is know as ________ .

Rear-foot varus; rear-foot valgus

31

From the lateral or side view, the patient stands with the plum line slightly anterior to the ________ .

Hip joint, knee joint, and lateral malleolus

32

When observing the lumbar posture from the lateral view of a patient in the static standing posture, the knees are normally ________ degrees in flexion.

0 to 5

33

When observing the lumbar posture from the lateral view of a patient in the static standing posture, a _______ can give a false appearance of exaggerated lordosis.

Large gluteus maximus or fat over the buttock

34

When observing the lumbar posture from the lateral view of a patient in the static standing posture, ________ may give the illusion of an increased _______ if the shoulders are _______ .

Scapulae; kyphosis; rounded

35

In a proper alignment, the ________ in the lateral view passes though the external auditory meatus, the earlobe, the bodies of the cervical vertebrae, the centre of the shoulder joint, and the greater trochanter. A horizontal line connects the ASIS with the PSIS.

Plumb line

36

In observing the lateral pelvic alignment, the PSIS is slightly higher than the ipsilateral ASIS, and often there is a about a _______ degree difference between them.

10

37

In observing the lateral lower extremity alignment, the knees can be hyperextended (genu recurvatum) which can increase _______ .

Spinal curves (lumbar lordosis)

38

In observing the lateral lower extremity alignment, the knees can be flexed past the normal 0-5 degrees, which is suggestive of:

Tight hamstrings or gastrocnemius

39

If knees are touching with the feet apart in the static standing position, it is know as:

Genu valgum

40

If feet are together and the knees are more that 2 finger widths apart, it is known as:

Genu varum

41

One can not easily correct their posture if joints are _______ or too ________ . Also if _______ are imbalanced in strength and length.

Stiff; mobile; muscles

42

The abnormal stresses of faulty posture can cause:

Excessive wearing of the articular surfaces and muscle fatigue and pain

43

Lower and upper crossed syndromes are:

Conditions of common muscles imbalances