Chemistry Final

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1

Dalton

This scientists was the first to experiment with atoms.

2

Becquerel

This scientists discovered radioactivity.

3

Thompson

This scientist was involved in the discovery of electrons and isotopes, invented mass spectrometer, and stated that all atoms are neutral.

4

Rutherford

This scientist discovered Alpha and Beta radiation and the nucleus.

5

Chadwick

This scientist was involved with the atomic bomb, nuclear fission, neutron.

6

Shroedinger

This scientists created Shroedinger's equation.

7

Mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca

What are the prefixes in order?

8

+2

What is zinc's charge always going to be?

9

+1

What is silver's charge always going to be?

10

Tin, lead

What are the two heavy metals whose charges we still must specify by roman numeral?

11

Decrease, increase

Electronegativity values _______ down a group and _______ across a period.

12

Covalent

What kind of compound is created when two nonmetals bond together by sharing electrons?

13

True

True or False: Covalent compounds do not share electrons equally.

14

more, less

The _____ electronegative element will have greater attraction to the shared pair

15

(lone pair) of electrons than the ______ electronegative element in the bond.

...

16

Nonpolar

This type of bond occurs when there is equal sharing between 2 atoms of the electrons in a bond.

17

Polar

A bond is _____ if its electrons are not shared equally.

18

Nonpolar

A bond is _____ if its electrons are shared equally.

19

Polar

This type of bond occurs when there is unequal sharing between 2 atoms of the electrons in a bond.

20

Ionic

This type of bond occurs when there is a complete transfer of electrons between 2 atoms in a bond.

21

Nonpolar

This type of bond occurs when the electronegativity difference is less than 0.4.

22

Polar

This type of bond occurs when the electronegativity difference is greater than or equal to 0.4 and less than or equal to 1.6.

23

Ionic

This type of bond occurs when the electronegativity difference is greater than or equal to 2.0.

24

Ionic, polar

Between the electronegativity difference of 1.7 and 2.0, if there is a metal then the bond is _______, if there are no metals then the bond is _______.

25

+2

What is zinc's charge?

26

+1

What is silver's charge?

27

Tin, lead

What are the 2 heavy metals who still require the use of roman numerals in their names?

28

Least, hydrogen

The central atom in a Lewis Structure is the ______ electronegative element that isn't ________.

29

Mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca

What are the prefixes in order for naming covalent compounds?

30

Hydro, ic

If an acid should end in -ide, change it to ______---___ acid.

31

ic

If an acid should end in -ate, change the ending to ___.

32

ous

If an acid should end in "ite", change the ending to ___.

33

Tetrahedral

If a molecule has 5 atoms and no lone pairs, then it has a _________ shape.

34

5, 0

If a molecule has a tetrahedral shape, then it has __ atoms and __ lone pair(s).

35

Trigonal pyramidal

If a molecule has 4 atoms and 1 lone pair, then it has a _________ shape.

36

4, 1

If a molecule has a trigonal pyramidal shape, then it has __ atoms and __ lone pair(s).

37

Bent

If a molecule has 3 atoms and 1 or 2 lone pairs, then it has a _________ shape.

38

3, 1 or 2

If a molecule has a bent shape, then it has __ atoms and __ lone pair(s).

39

Trigonal planar

If a molecule has 4 atoms and 0 lone pairs, then it has a _________ shape.

40

4, 0

If a molecule has a trigonal planar shape, then it has __ atoms and __ lone pair(s).

41

Linear

If a molecule has 3 atoms and 0 lone pairs, then it has a _________ shape.

42

3, 0

If a molecule has a linear shape, then it has __ atoms and __ lone pair(s).

43

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion

What goes VSEPR stand for?

44

Greater

VSEPR states that lone pairs have _____ repelling forces than bonded pairs.

45

Boron Trihydride

What is the name of BH3?

46

Nonpolar

Is H2 polar or nonploar?

47

Cations

Do metals form cations or anions?

48

109.5

What is the bond angle of a compound with a tetrahedral shape?

49

106.5

What is the bond angle of a compound with a trigonal pyramidal shape?

50

104.5

What is the bond angle of a compound with a bent shape and 2 lone pairs?

51

120

What is the bond angle of a compound with a trigonal planar shape?

52

118.5

What is the bond angle of a compound with a bent shape and 1 lone pair?

53

180

What is the bond angle of a compound with a linear shape?

54

Intermolecular Forces

These forces occur between molecules, and hold one molecule to another.

55

Intramolecular Forces

These forces hold one atom to another within a molecule.

56

Stronger

Intramolecular forces are ________ than intermolecular forces.

57

4

Carbon likes to have how many bonds?

58

meth, eth, prop, but, pent, hex, hept, oct, nona, dec

What are the prefixes in order for the number of carbons 1-10?

59

Single

-ane means _______-bonded carbon.

60

Double

-ene means _______-bonded carbon.

61

Triple

-yne means _______-bonded carbon.

62

Small

When numbering, you want to start numbering on the side that will make the number as _______ as possible.

63

Alkanes

________ are hydrocarbons containing only C and H and have all single bonds.

64

Ketones

________ contain a C = O group.

65

Alcohols

________ contain an O - H group.

66

Negative, Positive

When drawing the arrow to represent dipole movement, the arrow points towards the _______ end of the molecule and has a plus on the _______ end of the molecule.

67

Polar

The Dipole-Dipole intermolecular force occurs between ______ molecules.

68

Polar

The Hydrogen Bonding force occurs between ______ molecules and is basically the same as dipole-dipole, but is much stronger.

69

O--H, N--H, F--H

Order the three types of hydrogen bonding from strongest to weakest.

70

Form: X--H, Y--H, Z--H

...

71

Induced Dipole, weakest

London Dispersion, also known as _______ _______, is the _______ intermolecular force.

72

Nonpolar

London Dispersion occurs between _______ molecules.

73

London Dispersion, Dipole-Dipole, Hydrogen Bonding

Order the three types of intermolecular forces from lowest to highest boiling point.

74

Higher

A higher mass results in a ______ boiling point.

75

-anone

Ketones ends in ______.

76

-anol

Alcohols end in ______.

77

Methyl

When a single carbon group is attached to a longer chain, it is called a ______.

78

-cyclo

If we have a carbon chain in the shape of a ring, we put ______ in front.

79

14, single, 4, 6th

6-butyl tetradecane has ___ carbons, all ______ bonds, and a group of ___ carbons branching off of the __ carbon.

80

7, single, 3, 2nd

2-propyl heptane has __ carbons, all ______ bonds, and a group of ___ carbons branching off of the __ carbon.

81

1st

Given 1-propanol, we assume that the OH will branch off of the __ carbon.

82

Alkane, Ketone, Alcohol

Order the following from lowest to highest boiling point, assuming all have the same mass: Alkane, Ketone, Alcohol

83

Viscosity

This is the resistance of a liquid to flow. It is the ease with which molecules move past each other.

84

More

The larger the molecule, the _______ viscous it is, due to greater dispersion forces.

85

Surface Tension

This results from the net inward force experienced by molecules on the surface of a liquid.

86

Pulling the molecules farther apart

The heat added to a substance after it passes its melting or boiling point goes into __________.

87

Vapor Pressure

This is the pressure of the vapor on the surface of a liquid. It tells us when something will boil.

88

Quicker

The higher the vapor pressure, the _______ a molecule evaporates.

89

Vapor pressure, atmospheric pressure

Boiling point is the point at which ___________ = ___________.

90

Phase Diagram

This displays the state of a substance at various pressures and temperatures and the places where equilibria exist in between.

91

Volatility

This is how quickly a substance evaporates.

92

Higher

If a substance evaporates quickly, it has a ______ viscosity.

93

Which law states that as volume remains constant, pressure increases with temperature?

Gay-Lussac's Law

94

Which law states that as temperature remains constant, volume decreases as pressure increases?

Boyle's Law

95

Which law states that as pressure remains constant, volume increases with temperature?

Charles' Law

96

Solutions

________ are homogenous mixtures of two or more substances.

97

Solute, solvent

In a solution, the _______ is dissolved uniformly throughout the _______.

98

Strong, stronger

Nonsoluuble solids have very ______ (weak or strong) intramolecular forces, because the forces between its own particles are ______ (weaker or stronger) than the forces between it and a solvent's particles.

99

Solvent, solute, solvates

As a solution forms, the ______ pulls ______ particles apart and surrounds, or _______, them.

100

Lattice

If an ionic salt is soluble in water, it is because the ion-dipole interactions are strong enough to overcome the _______ energy of the salt crystal.

101

Emulsions

Liquids dissolved in other liquids are called ________.

102

Miscible

When 2 liquids mix, they are said to be ________.

103

Immiscible

When 2 liquids do not mix, they are said to be _________.

104

Solid, liquid, gas, liquid

Liquid solutions can be a ______, _______, or ______ dissolved in a _______.

105

Aqueous

Solutions in which water is the solvent are called ______ solutions.

106

Gas solution

A ____ ______ consists of 2 gases dissolved in one another.

107

Alloy

This is a mixture of 2 or more metals.

108

Physical

Dissolution is a ________ change.

109

Saturated

In a ________ solution, the solvent holds as much solute as is possible at that temperature.

110

Unsaturated

If a solution is ________, the solvent has not dissolved all of the solute that is possible at that temperature.

111

Supersaturated

In a _________ solution, the solvent holds more solute than is normally possible at that temperature.

112

Polar

Polar substances tend to dissolve in ______ substances.

113

Nonpolar

Nonpolar substances tend to dissolve in _______ substances.

114

Increase, decrease

Generally, an increase in temperature will _______ solubility and rate of solution of most solid and liquid solutes, but will ______ the solubility and rate of solution of gaseous solutes.

115

Increases

Decreasing particle size ______ the rate of solution.

116

Increases

Stirring ______ the rate of solution.

117

Increases

In general, the solubility of gases in water ______ with increasing mass.

118

Increases

For gases only, increasing pressure _______ solubility. Pressure does not affect liquid and gas solutes.

119

Effervescence

This is the escape of gas from a liquid at lower pressures.

120

Increases

Increasing surface area _______ the rate of solution.

121

Decreases

As amount of solute dissolved increases, the rate of solution ________.

122

Rate of Solution

This is a measure of how fast something dissolves. It is the quantity of of solute that will dissolve during one unit of time.

123

Concentration

The ________ of a solution depends on the proportion of solute to solvent.

124

Concentrated

The more solute there is dissolved in a solvent, the more _________ the solution.

125

Dilute

The solvent that is present, the more ________ the solution.

126

Weight-Percent Concentration

This gives the percent weight of the solute in a solution.

127

Weight of Solute, Weight of Solution

Weight Percent = ____________/____________ x 100%

128

Molarity

The _______ of a solution is the quantity of solute in moles per liter of solution.

129

M

The unit of molarity is ___.

130

Moles of solute, L of solution

Molarity = ____________/____________

131

Moles of solute, kg of solvent

Molality = ____________/____________

132

Molality

_________ is not affected by temperature. (Molarity/Molality)

133

Arrhenius

The ________ model postulated that acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution, whereas bases produce hydroxide ions.

134

Bronsted-Lowry, donor, acceptor

In the ____________ model, an acid is a proton _______ (donor/acceptor), and a base is a proton _______ (donor/acceptor).

135

Proton, base, conjugate acid, conjugate base

According to the Bronsted-Lowry model, the acid donates a ______ to the ______ to form the a new acid, the ________ ________, and a new base, the ________ ________.

136

Conjugate Base

The ________ is everything that remains of the acid molecule after a proton is lost.

137

Conjugate Acid

The _________ is formed when the proton is transferred to the base.

138

Conjugate acid-base pair

A _____________ consists of 2 substances related to each other by the donating and accepting of a single proton.

139

Hydronium

H3O+ is the _______ ion.

140

Amphoteric

An _________ substance can gain or lose protons; can be both an acid and a base.

141

Acceptors, donators

According to the Lewis model, acids are electron pair ________, and bases are electron pair ________.

142

Protons, electron pairs

Acids donate _______ and accept ___________.

143

7

A pH of __ is neutral.

144

-log[H+]

pH = _______.

145

1*10^(-14)

[H+] * [OH-] = ______.

146

-log[OH-]

pOH = _______.

147

14

pH + pOH = ___.

148

10^(-pH)

How do you calculate molarity given pH?

149

Acidic

If there are more hydrogens than hydroxides, you have a(n) _______ solution.

150

Increases, acidic

pH decreases as [H+] ________, so a lower pH means a more ______ solution.

151

Increases, basic

pH increases as [OH-] ________, so a higher pH means a more ______ solution.