Unit 9

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1

Acid

any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt

2

Base

any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water

3

"salt"

a compound formed by replacing hydrogen in an acid by a metal (or a radical that acts like a metal)

4

Corrossive

The way in which acid reacts with some metals so as to eat away the metal.

5

Sulfuric Acid

(H2SO4) a highly corrosive acid made from sulfur dioxide

6

Nitric Acid

(HNO₃) (aq) - A type of acid that forms in the atmosphere from oxides of nitrogen.

7

Phosphoric Acid

an acid used in fertilizers and soaps: H3PO4

8

Hydrochloric Acid

an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride

9

Acetic Acid

a colorless pungent liquid widely used in manufacturing plastics and pharmaceuticals

10

Muriatic Acid

Concentrated solutions of hydrochloric acid; usually used for cleaning.

11

Stomach Acid

Breaks down proteins, breaks them down into sugar and acids (HCl)

12

Battery Acid

(H₂SO₄) - A diluted sulfuric acid used in storage batteries. Cars use lead-acid batteries that supply electric energy.

13

Lye

a strong solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide

14

Caustic

any chemical substance that burns or destroys living tissue

15

Arrhenius Acid

a chemical compound that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions in aqueous solution

16

Arrhenius Base

a substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions in aqueous solution

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Aqueous

dissolved in water

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Strong Acid or base

an acid or base that disassociates essentially completly when dissolved to form a solution.

19

Sodium Hydroxide

a strongly alkaline caustic used in manufacturing soap and paper and aluminum and various sodium compounds

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Weak acid or base

substance that produces few ions when dissolved in water

21

Ammonia

a pungent gas compounded of nitrogen and hydrogen (NH3)

22

Bronsted Acid

a molecule or ion that is a proton donor

23

Bronsted Base

a molecule or ion that is a proton acceptor

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Conjugate Acid

the particle formed when a base gains a hydrogen ion

25

Conjugate Base

the particle that remains when an acid has donated a hydrogen ion

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Amphoteric

having characteristics of both an acid and a base and capable of reacting as either

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Neutralization reaction

a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base interact with the formation of a salt

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Acid Rain

rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water

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Ionization constant of water

the product of the molar concentrations of hydronium and hydroxide ions; at 25 degrees Celsius = 1.0 X 10-14

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Acidic solution

any solution in which the hydrogen-ion concentration is greater than the hydroxide-ion concentration

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Basic Solution

a solution whose pH is greater than 7

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Neutral Solution

a solution whose pH equals 7

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pH

(chemistry) p(otential of) H(ydrogen)

34

pOH

-log[OH-]

35

acid-base indicator

a chemical dye whose color is affected by acidic and basic solutions

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Titration

a measured amount of a solution of unknown concentration is added to a known volume of a second solution until the reaction between them is just complete

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Equivalence point

the point at which the two solutions used in a titration are present in chemically equivalent amounts

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Endpoint

a place where something ends or is complete

39

Phenolphthalein

a laxative used in many preparations under various trade names

40

Litmus Paper

unsized paper treated with litmus for use as an acid-base indicator