Nomenclature

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1

Acetate

C₂H₃O₂⁻

2

Bicarbonate

HCO₃⁻
A weak oxyacid, pKa₂ = 10.38.
Also functions as a weak base.
Important in blood buffering.

3

Bisulfite

HSO₃⁻

4

Bisulfate

HSO₄⁻

5

Dihydrogen Phosphate

H₂PO₄⁻

6

Hypochlorite

ClO⁻

7

Chlorite

ClO₂⁻

8

Chlorate

ClO₃⁻

9

Perchlorate

ClO₄⁻

10

Cyanide

CN⁻

11

Hydroxide

OH⁻
Most salts are only slightly water soluble.
KOH and NaOH are highly soluble.
Ca(OH)₂, Sr(OH)₂, and Ba(OH)₂ are fairly soluble in water.

12

Superoxide

O₂⁻ (radical)

13

Nitrite

NO₂⁻

14

Nitrate

NO₃⁻

15

Permanganate

MnO₄⁻

16

Carbonate

CO₃²⁻
A weak base. Salts are only slightly water soluble.

17

Chromate

CrO₄²⁻
Salts are only slightly water soluble.

18

Dichromate

Cr₂O₇²⁻

19

Hydrogen Phosphate

HPO₄²⁻
A weak base.

20

Oxalate

C₂O₄²⁻

21

Oxide

O²⁻

22

Peroxide

O₂²⁻

23

Sulfite

SO₃²⁻

24

Sulfate

SO₄²⁻
Most salts are water soluble (with the exception of Ba²⁺, Pb²⁺, Hg²⁺, and Ca²⁺).

25

Phosphate

PO₄³⁻
A weak base.
Salts are only slightly water soluble.

26

Ammonium

NH₄⁺
A weak ammonium acid. pKa = 9.26.
Most salts are water soluble.

27

Ammonia

NH₃

28

Hydronium

H₃O⁺
Water soluble.

29

Sulfide

S²⁻
Salts are only slightly water soluble.

30

Hydrochloric acid

HCl
Strong haloacid.

31

Hydrobromic acid

HBr
Strong haloacid.

32

Hydroiodic acid

HI
Strong haloacid.

33

Sulfuric acid

H₂SO₄
Strong oxyacid.

34

Nitric acid

HNO₃
Strong oxyacid.

35

Perchloric acid

HClO₄
Strong oxyacid.

36

Chloric acid

HClO₃
Strong oxyacid.

37

Trichloroacetic acid

Cl₃C₂O₂H
Weak carboxylic acid, but stronger than dichloroacetic acid.

38

Dichloroacetic acid

Cl₂HC₂O₂H
Weak caboxyllic acid.

39

Sulfurous acid

H₂SO₃
Weak oxyacid, has two pKas.

40

Chlorous acid

HClO₂
Weak haloacid

41

Chloroacetic acid

ClH₂C₂O₂H
Weak carboxylic acid

42

Hydrofluoric acid

HF
Weak haloacid.
This is because the flouride anion is very small and less able to diffuse it's charge than larger anions (e.g. Cl⁻, Br⁻, and I⁻).
F⁻ is less stable than other conjugate bases, and therefore a stronger base... Strong acids have weak conjugate bases.

43

Nitrous acid

HNO₂
Weak oxyacid (low oxidation state).

44

Formic acid

HCO₂H
Weak carboxylic acid.

45

Formate

HCO₂⁻
A carboxylate anion.
(IUPAC = methanoate)

46

Acetic acid

H₃C₂O₂H
A weak carboxylic acid, pKa = 4.74

47

2,4-dimethylanilinium

2,4-(H₃C)₂C₆H₃NH₃⁺
A weak aromatic alkyl ammonium acid.
Where the two methyl groups are ortho and para to ammonium (which is an activating group)

48

Anilinium

C₆H₅NH₃⁺
A phenyl (benzene+R) with an ammonium ion (NH₃R⁺).

49

4-aminoanilinium

4-NH₂C₆H₄NH₃⁺
A weak aromatic alkyl ammonium acid.

50

Carbonic acid

H₂CO₃
A weak carboxylic acid, pKa1 = 6.36

51

4-nitrophenol

4-O₂NC₆H₄OH
A weak aromatic phenol acid.
The alcohol on the benzene is activating and directs the nitro group (RN⁺OO⁻) para.
(as a side note, nitro groups are deactivating meta so to create this compound, the alcohol would have to be on the benzene first).

52

Hypochlorous acid

HClO
Weak oxyacid.

53

Hypobromous acid

HBrO
Weak oxyacid.

54

Hypobromite

BrO⁻

55

Hydrogen cyanide

HCN
A weak alkyl ammonium acid.

56

Hypoiodous acid

HIO
A weak oxyacid.

57

Hypoiodite

IO⁻

58

Potassium Hydride

KH
A strong hydride base.

59

Hydride ion

H⁻

60

Sodium hydroxide

NaOH
A strong hydroxide base, very soluble in water.

61

Potassium Methoxide

KOCH₃
A strong alkoxide base.

62

Sodium amide

NaNH₂
A strong amide base.

63

Butyl Lithium

Li(CH₂)₃CH₃
A strong carbide base.
Carbides are compounds composed of carbon and a less electronegative element.

64

Carboxylates

RCO₂⁻
A common type of weak base.

65

Alkyl amines

RNH₂
A common type of weak base.

66

Phenoxide

C₆H₅O⁻
A common type of weak base, an anionic phenol.

67

Phosphorous acid

H₃PO₃
A weak oxyacid.

68

Phosphoric acid

H₃PO₄
A weak oxyacid, phosphorous acid is stronger.

69

Oxalic acid

H₂C₂O₄
A weak oxyacid.

70

Chloric acid

HClO₃
A weak oxyacid.

71

Bromous acid

HBrO₂
A weak oxyacid.

72

Bromic acid

HBrO₃
A weak oxyacid.

73

Perbromic acid

HBrO₄
A weak oxyacid.

74

Iodous acid

HIO₂
A weak oxyacid.

75

Iodic acid

HIO₃
A weak oxyacid.

76

Periodic acid

HIO₄4
A weak oxyacid