Vitamins & Vitamin Deficiencies

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1

What are the Function of Vitamins?

Regulate many body functions

2

What are the Water Soluble Vitamins?

Vitamin B & C
B1 Thiamine
B2 Riboflavin
B3 Niacin
B6 Pyridoxine
B12 Cobalmin
C Ascorbic Acid

3

What is the Function of Vitamin B1 Thiamine?

Needed to release energy from CHO
Nerve & Heart function

4

What is a Vitamin B1 Thiamine deficiency called?

Beriberi & Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

5

What is the Function of Vitamin B2 Riboflavin?

Release of energy in cells

6

What is the Deficiency called associated with Vitamin B2 Riboflavin?

Cheilosis (cracked lips at the corners)
Inflammation of lips & tongue

7

What is the Function of Vitamin B3 Niacin?

Essential for growth, energy production
Hormone synthesis

8

What is the Deficiency called associated with Vitamin B3 Niacin?

Pellagra

9

What is the Function of Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine?

- Promotes proper nerve function
- Help's form RBC's
- Essential for protein & CHO metabolism

10

What is the Function of Vitamin B12 Cobalamin?

Genetic material for cells
Neural function

11

What is the Deficiency called associated with Vitamin B12 Cobalamin & who typically get this?

Pernicious anemia
Vegens typically get this

12

What is the Function of Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid?

- Formation of collagen
- Maintenance of bone, teeth, & tendons
- Wound healing
- Immune system

13

What is the Deficiency called associated with Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid?

Scurvy

14

What are the Fat Soluble Vitamins?

Vitamin:
A Retinol
D
E
K

15

What is the Function of Vitamin A Retinol?

Vision
Growth & Reproduction
Wound healing

16

Where is the source of Vitamin A Retinol?

Liver

17

If there is a Deficiency of Vitamin A Retinol, what will be the side effects?

Dim vision (Night vision)
Dry eyes

18

What is the Function of Vitamin D?

Formation of bone
Absorption of calcium & phosphorus in intestines

19

What is the Deficiency called associated with Vitamin D?

Rickets
Osteomalacia

20

What is the Function of Vitamin E?

Intracellular antioxidant
May have a role as a coenzyme

21

What are the sources of Vitamin E?

Vegetable oil
Seed oil

22

What will a Deficiency of Vitamin E cause?

Increased RBC hemolysis
Muscle lesions

23

What is the Function of Vitamin K?

- Formation of prothrombin & coagulant factors
- Normal blood clotting

24

What will a Deficiency of Vitamin K cause?

Defective clotting mechanism

25

What Diet/Food causes Beriberi?

Occurs with people whose staple food is Polished Rice

26

What are the 2 types of Beriberi & which one is more common?

Dry Beriberi & Wet Beriberi
More common: Dry beriberi

27

What are the characteristics of Dry Beriberi?

- Pain in feet & legs
- Degeneration of muscles
- Poorly coordinated movements

28

What are the characteristics of Wet Beriberi?

- Imparied heart function
- Edema (can obscure muscle wasting)

29

Who typically gets Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome?

- Alcoholics
- People who have long fasting or persistent vomiting, especially if given D5W

30

What are the S&S of Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome?

- Poor memory
- Confusion
- Nystagmus
- Ataxia
- Apathy

31

What are the S&S of Riboflavin Deficiency?

- Glossitis
- Photophobia
- Cheliosis
- "blood shot eyes"
- Waxy skin eruption around nose & lips
- Tongue is magente hue (violet color)

32

What are the 4 D's of Pellagra?

Dermatitis- "Casal's necklace"
Diarrhea- Frequent runny stools
Dementia- Memory impairment
Death- gradual systemic failure

33

What are the Initial Stages of Pellagra?

- Weight loss
- Anorexia
- General ill health

34

What are the S&S of Pellagra?

Reddish-brown pigmented skin on:
- neck
- face
- hands

35

What are the causes of Pyridoxine Deficiency?

Occurs with high protein diet
**TB patients get this by taking INH**

36

What are the symptoms of Pyridoxine Deficiency?

Convulsions
Metabolic abnormalities

37

Where is Vitamin B12 Cobalamin stored in the body?

The Liver

38

What is the cause of Cobalamin Deficiency?

Results from lack of intrinsic factor necessary for absorption

39

Where does Folic Acid Deficiency occur in the body & due to what?

In the small intestine:
- Celiac disease
- Alcohol abuse
- Malabsorption

40

What type of patient should always take Folic Acid?

Obstetric patients

41

What should you Rule Out with suspected Folic Acid Deficiency before treating with Folate?

Pernicious anemia

42

What is the cause of Pantothenic Acid Deficiency?

Deficiency only known to occur in humans with an artifical, pantothenic-acid free diet

43

What are the S&S of Ascorbic Acid Deficiency AKA "Scurvy"?

Early Sign: multiple hemorrhages
Swollen, bleeding, & inflamed gums
Dengenerative changes in bones

44

What are the effects of Retinol Deficiency?

- Night blindness
- Xeropthalmia (dyr eyes)
- Keratomalacia (softening of the cornea)
- Deterioration of mucous membranes

45

What are the effects of Rickets in Children?

- Impaired calcification
- Development of teeth
- Beading of ribs
- Excessive perspiration
**Fat belly with ribs showing**

46

What are the effects of Rickets in Adults?

Osteomalacia
- Beading of ribs
- Excessive perspiration
**Fat belly with ribs showing**

47

What is the Function of Folic Acid?

- Needed to make DNA & RNA
- Manufacture RBC's

48

What is the source of Folic Acid?

Dark green vegetables

49

What is the Function of Biotin?

Important in reactions involving the lengthening of carbon chains

50

What will a deficiency of Biotin cause?

- Dermatitis
- Glossitis (Inflammation of the tongue)

51

What is the Function of Pantothenic Acid?

Energy release from protein, CHO, & fats

52

What will a deficiency of Pantothenic Acid cause?

Fatigue
Muscle Cramps