Proteins and Amino Acids

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 8 years ago by chemistry_goo
215 views
Grade levels:
6th grade, 7th grade, 8th grade, 9th grade, 10th grade, 11th grade, 12th grade, College: First year, College: Second year, College: Third year, College: Fourth year
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Proteins

macromolecules that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

2

Amino Acid

basic building blocks of protein molecules

3

Amine Group

the nitrogen-containing portion of an amino acid

4

Side Chain

the unique chemical structure attached to the backbone of each amino acid that differentiates one amino acid from another

5

Essential Amino Acid

an amino acid that is required by animals but that they cannot synthesize

6

Conditionally Essential Amino Acids

an amino acid that is normally nonessential, but must be supplied by the diet in special circumstances when the need for it exceeds the body's ability to produce it

7

Peptide Bond

covalent bond formed between amino acids

8

Collagen

Structural protein found in the skin and connective tissue

9

Enzymes

proteins that act as biological catalysts

10

Hemoglobin

specialized protein that carries oxygen on red blood cells

11

Denaturation

loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factors

12

Polypeptides

Long chains of amino acids. Proteins are composed of one or more of these.

13

Dipeptides

protein fragments that are 2 amino acids long

14

Tripeptides

protein fragments that are 3 amino acids long

15

Protein Turnover

The continuous breakdown and synthesis of body proteins involving the recycling of amino acids

16

Catalyst

Substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

17

Hormones

special chemicals that control body functions

18

Thyroxine

regulates metabolism

19

Serotonin

affects mood, hunger, sleep and arousal

20

Antibodies

Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents

21

Immunity

the state of not being susceptible

22

Fluid and electrolyte balance

maintenance of the proper amounts and kinds of fluids and minerals in each compartment of the body

23

Edema

swelling caused by excess fluid in the body tissues

24

Acids

substances that release hydrogen ions when dissolved in water

25

Bases

substances that can accept hydrogen ions

26

Acid base balance

equilibrium between acid and base concentrations in the body fluids

27

Buffers

mixtures that can react with acids or bases to keep the pH within a particular range

28

Acidosis

abnormally high acidity (excess hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues

29

Alkalosis

the buildup of excess base (or lack of acids)in the bodily fluids

30

Urea

waste product formed in the liver, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, and excreted in urine

31

Nitrogen Balance

the balance between the amount of nitrogen taken in (to the soil or the body) and the amount given off (lost or excreted)

32

High Quality Proteins

dietary proteins containing all the essential amino acids in relatively the same amounts that human beings require. They may also contain nonessential amino acids.

33

Limiting Amino Acid

the essential amino acid that is missing or in the smallest supply in the amino acid pool and is thus responsible for slowing or halting protein synthesis

34

Complementary proteins

two or more dietary proteins whose amino acid assortments complement each other in such a way that the essential amino acids missing from one are supplied by the other

35

Mutual Supplementation

the strategy of combining two incomplete protein sources so that the amino acids in one food make up for those lacking in the other food. Such protein combinations are sometimes called complementary proteins.

36

Legumes

group of plants that include beans and peas

37

Fufu

a low-protein staple food that provides abundant starch energy to many of the world's people; fufu is made by pounding or grinding root vegetables or refined grains and cooking them to a smooth semisolid consistency.

38

Protein Energy Malnutrition

a disorder caused by inadequate intake of protein and energy

39

hunger

a physiological need for food

40

Marasmus

extreme malnutrition and emaciation (especially in children)

41

Kwashiorkor

severe malnutrition in children resulting from a diet excessively high in carbohydrates and low in protein

42

Dysentery

an infection of the intestines marked by severe diarrhea

43

Homocysteine

an amino acid normally found in the blood and used by the body to build and maintain tissues

44

Osteoporosis

a condition in which the body's bones become weak and break easily