The 4 Macromolecules

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 8 years ago by chemistry_goo
474 views
Grade levels:
6th grade, 7th grade, 8th grade, 9th grade, 10th grade, 11th grade, 12th grade, College: First year, College: Second year, College: Third year, College: Fourth year
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Organic Chemistry

-the study of carbon-based compounds
-the study of compounds containing carbon that is chemically bonded to hydrogen

2

Carbohydrates

purpose is short-term energy source
end in "ose"
polymers
monomers are monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides

3

Proteins

purpose: everything
polymers
monomers are amino acids
enzymes (end in "ose") are proteins
Amino group
Carboxyl group
Variable R chain
Three-letter abbreviation

4

Lipids

purpose is long-term energy storage
fats, steroids, and phospholipids are in this category

5

Nucleic Acids

purpose is to make DNA and RNA
polymers
monomers are nucleotides
sugar
base
Phosphate group

6

ATP

Adenosine tri-phosphate
Cell's energy source
When bond breaks, energy is released (forms ADP- adenosine di-phosphate)

7

Polymers

long chains made up of repeating building blocks (monomers)

8

Monomers

building blocks that make up long chains called polymers

9

Monosaccharides

some monosaccharides are: glucose, fructose, and galactose

10

Disaccharides

2 monosaccharides
some disaccharides are:
maltose= glucose+glucose
sucrose= glucose+fructose
lactose= glucose+galactose
Connected via dehydration synthesis
Bond is called a glycosidic linkage

11

Polysaccharides

some polysaccharides are:
starch= plant energy storage
glycogen= animal energy storage
Plants form cellulose
Animals form chitin

12

Hydrocarbons

Compounds (molecules) that are only composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms
Shape: can be straight chain (pleated), branched, or have rings

13

Isomers

2 different molecules that have the same molecular formula, but have different structure

14

Fats

Saturated vs Unsaturated (monounsaturated, polyunsaturated)
Have glycerol attached to 3 fatty acids

15

Saturated Fats

stearate
unhealthy
no double bonds in fatty acid chain

16

Monounsaturated Fats

oleate
healthy
1 double bond in fatty acid chain

17

Polyunsaturated Fats

linoleate
healthy
more than one double bond in fatty acid chain

18

Phospholipids

used to make cell membrane
-glycerol
-2 fatty acid chains
-Phosphate head
hydrophilic (water-loving) head
hydrophobic (water-fearing) tail

19

Amino Group

H
|
-N-H
found in proteins
NH2

20

Phosphate Group

O-
|
__ O __ P __ O-
||
O
found in DNA, ATP
PO4

21

Proteins Levels of Structure

Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary

22

Primary Structure

sequence of amino acids