Chemistry Chapter 8

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1

Compound

a substance formed from more than one element

2

Molecule

a group of atoms with no net charge (net charge: total charge an ion has)

3

Molecular Formula

symbols representing the composition of a molecular compound

4

Covalent Bonding

electron sharing between nonmetals

5

Single Covalent Bond

a sharing of one pair of electrons between two atoms

6

Traits of Single Covalent Bond

1. weaker than an ionic bond
2. weakest of all the covalent bonds
3. longest length of all the covalent bonds
4. sigma (o) bond - overlapping orbital clouds between atoms

7

Double Covalent Bond

sharing two pairs of electrons between two atoms

8

Double Covalent Bond Traits

1. has sigma bond
2. has a pi bond - indirect orbital overlap

9

Triple Covalent Bond

sharing three pairs of electrons between two atoms

10

Triple Covalent Bond Traits

1. strongest of all the covalent bonds
2. shortest length of all the covalent bonds
3. has a sigma bond
4. has a pi bond - indirect orbital overlap

11

Endothermic Reaction

absorbing heat (new bonds are at a higher chemical energy than the old bonds)

12

Exothermic Reaction

giving off heat (new bonds are at a lower chemical energy than old bonds)

13

Binary Compound

composed of two elements

14

Binary Molecular Compound (BM)

nonmetal / nonmetal combination
1. no ionic charges involved (no crisscross)
2. ending in -IDE
3. since there aren't any charges to determine the ration of symbols, mandatory prefixes are used

15

Acid

an aqueous solution with components that donate H+ ions when in solution

16

Oxyacid

an acid with oxygen in its anion

17

Hybrid Orbitals

atomic orbitals mix to form blended, identical orbitals
1. single bond = sp3
2. double bond = sp2
3. triple bond = sp

18

What does VSEPR stand for?

valence shell electron pair repulsion

19

What does VSEPR mean?

1. valence electrons repel themselves as far apart as possible
2. predicts 3D geometric shapes of molecules based on the numbers of bonding & nonbonding pairs on the central atom
3. a double or triple bond is treated as one main bonding "arm"
4. electron dot diagrams are used to predict models' shape

20

Electronegativity

the "greediness" of an atom for electrons when bonding (on the periodic table, electronegativity increases from left to right)

21

Polar Bond

a covalent bond with unequal sharing of electrons
1. a polar molecule has an asymmetrical molecular shape
2. partially positive
3. because of the two ends, a polar molecule is also called a dipole

22

Nonpolar Covalent Bond

a covalent bond with equal sharing of electrons