drug therapy for nausea and vomiting

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created 3 months ago by Akosua_Ruby
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Pharmacology
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updated 3 months ago by Akosua_Ruby
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1

MOA of promethazine

blocks dopamine from the H1 receptor sites in the brain and inhibits CTZ

2

use of promethazine

  • motion sickness
  • nausea
  • sedation induction
3

AE of promethazine

  • extrapyramidal SE (twitching, Parkinsonism, tongue protruding lip smacking effect)
  • urinary retention
  • respiratory depression
4

administration of promethazine.

BBW in children

  • intramuscular
  • children -> fatal respiratory depression in children under 2
  • contraindicated subQ, avoid IV administration if able
5

caution with promethazine

  • use cautiously in patients with liver disease
  • IV infiltration into subQ tissue can cause necrosis
6

MOA of hydroxyzine

competes with histamine for receptor sites in GI tract, blood vessels, and respiratory tract

7

use of hydroxyzine

  • N/V
  • motion sickness
  • seasonal allergies
  • anxiety
  • anesthesia
  • vertigo
8

AE of hydroxyzine

  • anticholinergic effects
  • thickened respiratory secretions
  • blurred vision
  • urinary retention
  • tachycardia
9

MOA of ondansetron

serotonin antagonist suppresses N/V by blocking receptors in CTZ

10

use of ondansetron

  • moderate to severe N/V particularly in chemo and radiation
11

AE of ondansetron

  • harmless transient liver enzymes
  • pain at injection site
12

MOA of scopolamine

inhibits actions of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors

13

use of scopolamine

motion sickness and IBS

14

AE of scopolamine

  • anticholinergic type AE
  • fatigue
  • dizziness
  • drowsiness
15

administration of scopolamine

PO or transdermal (switch ears if using longer than 3 days)

16

MOA of diphenoxylate with atropine

inhibits gastric motility by exerting effects on smooth muscle cells of GI tract

17

use of diphenoxylate with atropine

treat diarrhea by slowing intestinal motility

18

AE of diphenoxylate with atropine

  • paralytic ileus
  • toxic megacolon
  • anaphylaxis
  • tachycardia
19

MOA of bismuth subsalicylate (peptobismol)

coating the wall of GI tract and absorbing bacteria or toxins that cause diarrhea

20

use of bismuth subsalicylate

traveler's diarrhea and can be used as antacid for gastric discomfort

21

AE of bismuth subsalicylate (WACT)

  • weakness
  • anxiety
  • confusion
  • tongue and stool discoloration
22

contraindication of bismuth subsalicylate

cannot be given to children. contains aspirin

23

MOA lactulose

draws water into the intestines to form a soft stool. decrease ammonia level

24

use of lactulose

constipation and hepatic encephalopathy

25

AE of diphenoxylate with atropine (PATT)

  • paralytic ileus
  • toxic megacolon
  • anaphylaxis
  • tachycardia
26

MOA of bisacodyl (dulcolax)

increase peristalsis by direct effect on smooth muscle of intestine

27

use of bisacodyl

  • bowel prep
  • prevention and short-term treatment of constipation
28

AE of bisacodyl

  • dependence
  • fluid and electrolyte imbalance
29

administration of bisacodyl

abused as weight loss supplement

30

MOA of docussate sodium

decrease surface tension by mixing liquid with bowel contents

31

use of decussate sodium

constipation

32

AE of decussate sodium (TAD)

may cause throat irritation, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps

33

MOA of psyllium

acts as bulk-forming laxative by drawing water into intestines

34

use of psyllium

control constipation

35

SE/AE of psyllium

  • esophageal or intestinal obstruction
  • bronchospasm
  • anaphylaxis