Nucleic Acids, mitosis and protein synthesis

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1

Amino acid

building blocks of proteins

2

Anaphase

chromosomes move toward opposite ends

3

cancer

mutations lead to cancer

4

chromosome

composed of protein and a molecule called DNA

5

codon

A set of three adjacent nucleotides, also called triplet, in mRNA that base-pair with the corresponding aniticodon of tRNA molecule that carries a particular amino acid, hence, specifying the type and sequence of amino acids for protein synthesis.

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deoxyribose

sugar

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DNA

in all living things

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double helix

two strands join together with the bases in the middle, twisting

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gene

responsible for the physical and inheritable characteristics or phenotype of an organism. It also specifies the structure of a protein, and an RNA molecule.

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helicase

enzyme that seperates the two original strands

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interphase

not apart of mitosis

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metaphase

second step and the sister chromatids line up along the cell

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mitosis

daughter cells are identical

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mRNA

codes for a trait

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nitrogen base

adennine, guannine, cytosine ad thymine

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nucleic acid

Nucleic acids may be in the form of DNA or RNA molecules containing the genetic information important for all cellular functions and heredity.

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nucleotide

made up of monomers and join together. Has a phosphate, sugar and nitrogenous base.

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phosphate

A salt of phosphoric acid.

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polymerase

creates 2 new strands of DNA and proof reads for any mistakes

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prophase

1st step in DNA and condenses to a chromosome

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protein synthesis

After DNA is transcribed into a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule during transcription, the mRNA must be translated to produce a protein. In translation, mRNA along with transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomes work together to produce proteins.

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replication

DNA replicates and as do chromsomes

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telophase

chromosomes unwind back to DNA

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Transcription

starts in the nucleus (TRNA transcribes language)

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translation

brings in amino acids and attaches to the MRNA

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RNA

transfer and happens in the cytoplasm