Biology Supplement: Shervette Bio 122 USC-Aiken

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 4 months ago by karinaantonio
33 views
book cover
Campbell Biology in Focus
Chapters 40-43
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Approximately how many kg of carnivore biomass can be supported by a field plot containing 1,000 kg of plant material?

10

2

Which of the following is primarily responsible for limiting the number of trophic levels in most ecosystems?

Energy transfer between trophic levels is in almost all cases less than 20% efficient.

3

Which of the following relies upon existing biodiversity for the decontamination of polluted ecosystems?

Some types of bacteria naturally convert toxins to less hazardous forms.

4

Which of the following would be considered an example of bioremediation?

Raising chromium accumulation plants to extract chromium from contaminated soil.

5

To selectively remove soil toxins from regions affected by Hurricane Katrina, some residents have raised sunflowers and other plants in their yards. Then, the mature plants are pulled up and safely stored with other contaminated wastes. This is an example of

Bioremediation

6

To selectively remove soil toxins from regions affected by Hurricane Katrina, some residents have raised sunflowers and other plants in their yards. Then, the mature plants are pulled up and safely stored with other contaminated wastes. This is an example of

Bioremediation

7

Which pattern of reproduction is correctly paired with a species?

iteroparity- elephant

8

Pacific salmon and annual plants are excellent examples of

Semelparous reproduction (Big-bang reproduction)

9

Imagine that a deep temperate zone lake did not "turn over" during the spring and fall seasons. Based on the physical and biological properties of limnetic ecosystems, what would be the difference from normal season turnover?

A "J," increasing with each generation

10

Which of the following environmental features might influence microclimates?

all of the above

11

In the ecological development of terrestrial biomes, which factor is most dependent on all others?

The species of colonizing animals

12

All organisms living together in a place are called a

Community

13

Competition shapes communities because there are usually limited ___________.

Resources

14

The attempt of two organisms trying to utilize the same resource is called ___________.

Competition

15

No two species can occupy the same niche indefinitely without competition driving one to _________.

Extinction

16

Secondary compounds play a defensive role for plants to keep from being eaten by ________.

Herbivores

17

Aposematic, or warning coloration, serves to protect an animal or plant by signaling to potential ________ to stay away.

Predators

18

In _______ mimicry, unprotected species resemble others that are distasteful.

Batesian

19

In ________ mimicry, two or more unrelated but protected species resemble one another, thus achieving a kind of group defense.

Mullerian

20

A _________ relationship is one in which two or more kinds of organisms live together in often elaborate and more or less permanent association.

Symbiotic

21

Some animals are ______ colored and blend in with their surroundings

Cryptically

22

The way in which an organism utilizes its environment may be called

Its niche

23

In this relationship, one organism serves as a host to another organism, usually to the host's disadvantage.

Parasitism

24

A relationship, which occurs when one member of the relationship is neither helped nor harmed and the other member derives some benefit, is called

Commensalism

25

A relationship in which both members benefit is called

Mutualism

26

The holistic concept of communities, as put forth by Clements, says that

Communities are formed from coevolved species that function together

27

Communities evolve to have greater biomass and species richness in a process called

Succession

28

Paleontological studies indicate that, over millions of years,

Species seem to come and go individually as niches within a community become available

29

The pattern of living or the function of an organism in a community is called its

Niche

30

The actual niche the organism is able to occupy in the presence of competitors is called its

Realized niche

31

Competition between species is called ____________ competition

Interspecific

32

Gause said that if two species attempt to occupy the same niche, with limited resources, one of them will become

Extinct

33

Resource partitioning can often be seen in similar species that occupy the same geographic area. These species avoid competition by living in different portions of the habitat or by utilizing different food or other resources and are called ____________ species.

Sympatric

34

Some insect species have coevolved with particular flowering plants, to assist them in pollination and defense. Plants have also evolved special traits to benefit the insects. Select from the following an item that plants have not coevolved to benefit an insect.

Secondary compounds

35

Plant morphological defenses do not include

Nectar in the flowers

36

Chemicals that play the dominant role in protecting plants from being eaten by herbivores or predators are called

Secondary compounds

37

Cardiac glycosides, molecules causing a drastic effect on vertebrate heart function, are produced as defense chemicals by plants, which belong to

The milkweed and dogbane families

38

A herbivore can avoid competition from other species for food by acquiring the ability to

Be tolerant to some secondary compounds, allowing it to feed on an underutilized resource

39

If a certain insect uses a specific plant secondary substance as a signal to feed, instead of a warning to stay away, this is an example of

Coevolutionary adaptation

40

Animals defend themselves against predators by all of the following except

Parasitism

41

Insects that feed on milkweed plants are generally brightly colored. Such coloration is called

Warning coloration

42

Some insects that lack any specific chemical defenses blend with their environment to avoid predators. This type of defense strategy is called

Cryptic coloration

43

Chemical defenses are found in all of the following except

Batesian mimics

44

Coevolution is involved in all of the following except

Intraspecific competition

45

All of the following are types of symbiosis except

Camouflage

46

If in a relationship the organism growing on the host benefits, and the host is unharmed, the relationship is called

Commensalism

47

The symbiotic relationship between cattle egrets and cape buffalo is an example of

Commensalism

48

Insects that lay eggs on living hosts are called

Parasitoids

49

Two or more unrelated but protected species resemble one another, having bright colors, thus achieving a kind of group defense. This phenomenon of similar coloration is called

Mullerian mimicry

50

A symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit is

Mutualism

51

Which statement is an accurate interpretation of the outcome in an ecosystem when a major predator is removed?

The diversity of the ecosystem decreases since there is an increase in competition.

52

Alligators excavate holes in the bottom of bodies of water. During times of severe drought these holes act as refugia for various aquatic organisms that might perish if there were no water available. Thus, alligators in this system can be classified as a(n)

Keystone species

53

Succession happens because species in the habitat alter that habitat in ways that assist other species. There are three dynamic concepts that are of critical importance for succession to take place. They are

Facilitation, inhibition, and tolerance

54

Communities evolve to have greater biomass and species richness in a process called

Succession

55

The dynamic processes that are of critical importance in succession involve all of the following except

Competitive exclusion

56

Secondary succession takes place in all of the following except

An area exposed by a melting glacier

57

A species that interacts in critical ways with many other elements of an ecosystem is called a ___________ species.

Keystone

58

Lakes become eutrophic by

Accumulation of organic matter

59

Primary succession can occur on all of the following except a(n)

Fire-ravaged soil

60

The difference in the fundamental niche and the realized niche is

The fundamental niche is the entire niche that a species is capable of using while the realized niche is just what is being occupied

61

During the mid 1930s, G. F. Gause studied competition among three species of Paramecium. Through his experiments he formulated a principle of

Competitive exclusion

62

Two of Darwin's finches display a character displacement when they occur as sympatric species. Which of the statements correctly interprets the graph?

The two species have different beak sizes when they occur on the same island.

63

Which of the following statements accurately reflects the differences between Batesian mimicry and Müllerian mimicry?

In Batesian mimicry the model must be more dangerous than the mimic; in Mullerian mimicry they are both dangerous

64

Which of the following is an example of commensalism?

Epiphytes growing on the trunk of a tree

65

All of the following items are features of a biological community, except one. Select the exception.

Character displacement

66

Which of the following is a likely explanation for why invasive species take over communities into which they have been introduced?

Invasive species are not held in check by the predators and agents of disease that have always been in place for native species.

67

Which one of the following statements correctly defines the concept "ecotone" and describes its importance in the debate over what determines the makeup and functioning of communities?

An ecotone is a place where the environment changes abruptly and that some plant communities are distinct in adjacent areas supports the holistic concept of communities.

68

The individualistic concept of community makes all of the following predictions except

Adjacent areas with very different soil types should have different, but predictable plant communities

69

In studies of two species of barnacles in the marine intertidal zone it was observed that Chthamalus can live in the upper intertidal zone and the lower intertidal zone if Semibalanus is absent, and Semibalanus can only live in the lower zone because it is more subject to dehydration. Based on this, which of the following statements is false?

The fundamental and the realized niches of Chthamalus are the same.

70

Which of the following statements about the fundamental and realized niche is false?

A species' fundamental niche can be smaller than its realized niche

71

All of the following factors can be important in determining the difference between a species' fundamental and realized niches. Select the exception.

Presence of a commensalistic that benefits

72

Which of the following statements about Gause's studies of competition between different species of Paramecium is false?

A species cultured with another species showed only the effect of interspecific competition.

73

You collect data on growth of two different species (A and B) when grown by themselves and with each other. Which one of the following comparisons would best show the effect of only interspecific on species B?

The growth of species B alone with its grown when with A

74

Cattle egrets follow African ungulates such as African buffalo around and catch insects that the buffalo flush. Oxpeckers perch on the backs of buffalo and feed on ectoparasites that infest the buffalo. Which one of the following shows the ecological interaction that the buffalo has with each bird?

Cattle egret" commensalism

Oxpecker: mutualism

75

Imagine two related species that have non-overlapping ranges. If the following events involving these two species were arranged in the order they likely occurred, which event would be third?

Interspecific competition

76

Which would not be an expected long-term change during primary succession on glacial moraines?

Increase in pH

77

Which of the following statements about the intermediate disturbance hypothesis is false?

The intermediate disturbance hypothesis predicts that most communities eventually reach an end-state
or climax community.

78

Which of the following statements about symbiotic relationships is false?

Both mutualisms and commensalisms result from the process of coevolution.

79

Which of the following statements about mimicry is false?

Generally, the number of mimics in a Müllerian mimicry system must be less than the number of
models.

80

Which of the following statements about predation is false?

Removal of a predator often leads to increased community stability.

81

Which of the following biomes is correctly paired with the description of its climate?

D. Tropical forests- nearly constant dry length and temperture

82

A population's carrying capacity

A. May change as environmental conditions change

83

When climbing a mountain, we can observe transitions in biological communities that are analogous to the changes

B. In biomes at different latitudes

84

According to the logistic growth equation

dN = rN (K-N)

____ _______

dt K

C. Population growth is zero when N equals K

85

If the direction of Earth's rotation reversed, the most predictable effect would be

C. Winds blowing from west to east along the equator

86

The feeding relationships among the species in a community determine the community's

D. Trophic structure

87

Based on the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, a community's species diversity is increased by

C. Moderate levels of disturbance

88

Which of the following could qualify as a top-down control on a grassland community?

D. Effect of grazing intensity by bison on plant species diversity

89

Which of the following organisms is incorrectly paired with its trophic level?

C. Zooplankton- primary producer

90

Which of these ecosystems has the lowest net primary production per square meter?

B. An open ocean

91

The discipline that applies ecological principles to returning degraded ecosystems to a more natural state is known as

A. Restoration ecology

92

Nitrifying bacteria participate in the nitrogen cycle mainly by

C. Converting ammonium to nitrate, which plants absorb

93

Which of the following has the greatest effect on the rate of chemical cycling in an ecosystem?

A. The rate of decomposition in the ecosystem

94

The Hubbard Brook watershed deforestation experiment yielded all of the following results except:

B. Calcium levels remained high in the soil of deforested areas

95

Which of the following would be considered an example of bioremediation?

D. Adding seeds of a chromium-accumulating plant to soil contaminated by chromium

96

If you applied a fungicide to a cornfield, what would you expect to happen to the rate of decomposition and net ecosystem production (NEP)?

D. Decomposition rate would decrease and NEP would increase

97

One characteristic that distinguishes a population in an extinction vortex from most other populations is that

C. Its genetic diversity is very low

98

The main cause of the increase in the amount of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere over the past 150 years is

D.The burning of larger amounts of wood and fossil fuels

99

What is the single greatest threat to biodiversity?

B. Habitat alteration, fragmentation, and destruction

100

Which of the following is a consequence of biological magnification?

A. Toxic chemicals in the environment pose greater risk to top-level predators than to primary consumers

101

Which of the following strategies would most rapidly increase the genetic diversity of a population in an extinction vortex?

B. Introduce new individuals transported from other populations of the same species

102

Of the following statements about protected areas that have been established to preserve biodiversity, which one is not correct?

A. About 25% of Earth's land area is now protected