Philosophy 206 final exam

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What does the text say an argument is?

A certain type of communication that strives to convince a listener that is true or reasonable


What is the difference between induction and deduction?

Induction: gathering evidence

Deduction: absolute truth and using this ad a premise


What are the logical fallacies given in the text? Define and give an example of each.

  1. Hasty generalization fallacy: b/c someone has been cheated by two auto mechanics no auto mechanic can be trusted
  2. appeal to authority fallacy: Someone who is an expert in one field claim to be ab authority in another or referring to vague expert opinion in defense of their own views
  3. Begging the question fallacy: when someone tries to prove a point by rephrasing it, I'm right because I'm never wrong, circular definition assuming that what you are trying to prove is a fact
  4. Ad baculum fallacy: a bully saying if you don't give then your purse they will harm you, using physical threats
  5. Ad hominem fallacy: you can't believe what Fred says he is a guy, assumes that who a person is determines ther correctness or incorrectness if what he or she says
  6. Slippery slope argument fallacy: If we continue to allow abortions then no once will give birth, drastic consequences will follow a certain policy
  7. Straw man fallacy: Inventing a viewpoint so radical that hardly anyone holds ro it, so you can knock it down, Gun advocates want to allow criminals and children ti own weapons, so we should work toward a gun ban
  8. False dichotomy fallacy: it's my way or the highway then you are Bifurcating (can't be a little pregnant its either/or)
  9. Red herring fallacy: a red herring is placed on the path to confuse the bloodhound, it is a deflection away from the truth
  10. Ad misericordiam fallacy(appeal to pity): nothing but an excuse, my backpack was stolen

What are the three parts of the soul for Plato? Describe each part of the soul and how it relates to the other parts of the soul.

reason: to pull away from things wr desire realizing it would be bad for you, when reason rules the person is wise

Willpower: our spirit, when spirit controls the appetite, the person is brave

Appetite: desires, needs and wants, when the Shoots afte in control the person is temperate


Can an unjust person be happy? Why/why not?

An unjust person can't be happy, only a well balanced person, wise, brave and temperate


What is the metaphor from the Phaedrus that Socrates uses and what does it mean?

The side relationship, the charioteer is reason, the well behaved horse willpower, and the wild horse appetite.

Balanced individuals have total poorer control by reason and willpower oldet appetite


What are the four virtues that result from a well aligned soul? Relate each virtue to its corresponding element

Wisdom -corresponds to- reason

Courage -corresponds to- Willpower

Temperance -corresponds to- Appetite



In what way does the soul of a person reflect the state?

Philosophy kings to reason and wisdom, auxiliaries is will power, private citizens to appetite


What are the four causes? Explicate. Which is the most important? Why?

  1. MATERIAL CAUSE: the stuff the thing is made of
  2. Efficient cause: the force that had brought it into being
  3. Formal cause: the shape or idea (form) if the thing
  4. Final cause: thre purpose of the thing

final cause, because it allows us to understand the purpose of a thing


What is the first instantiation of the Categorical Imperative? State it and explain it.

Always act so that you can will that your maxim can become a universal law


What does it mean that it is Categorical?

Absolute applies to everyone, everywhere at all times


What does it mean that it is Imperative?

You have a duty to do it


What is a maxim?

The principle rule for the action


Explicate how the text explains how the Categorical Imperative is used to determine whether an action is immoral or moral.

This method of determining whether an action is moral or immoral regardless of context or situation is known as an a priori method. That is Latin for ‘to the prior’ and it means that one can determine the morality of an action prior to knowing the context or the situation.

1. Ask yourself what you want to do

2. Turn into maxim or principle of action

3. Universalize it


What is the harm principle?In what way are tyranny and democracy problematic?

  • The sole ends for which mankind is warranted, individually or collectively, in interfering with the liberty of action of any of their number, is self- protection.
  • The only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others
  • You can't harm someone unless they are harming you or someone else, you can't just hurt people for pleasure
  • Liberals: took the ideas that the job of government is to ensure people's freedoms- gives them liberties by regulating things
  • Conservatives: government Is there to take away freedom(laissez-faire), give them liberties by Not regulating things

What is difference feminism? According to this theory, how do women survive in a male-dominated public sphere?

believes that women and men possess fundamentally different qualities and that both genders should learn from each other.

Only if they wre willing to give up some of their female values


How do Aristotle, Kant, Rousseau, and Nietzsche see men as different from women?

Aristotle: beloved that women wre deformed men

Kant: found it thoroughly improper for a woman to display any interest in intellectual or technological pursuits, even if she might be good at them

Rousseau: saw a woman as a man's helpmate and little elder

Nietzsche admired women for being more natural than men but vilified then fire being inconsistent


What did John Stuart Mill say about gender equality and how has that influenced feminism?

Although Men and women have different capacities, they should nevertheless br given equal opportunities and equal respect for their abilities


What values does the difference feminist say we typically celebrate and what do they think should be done about this?

Make values, replace the image of one of the genders being more normal than the other with an image of both genders, being equally representative of the human race


What are typical male/female virtues?

Male: justice, rights, fairness, competition, independence and adherence to the rules

Female: generosity, caring, harmony, reconciliation and maintenance of close relationships