Biology Semester 1 Exam Review: Nucleic Acids Unit

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1

Everything consists of DNA

Why is DNA or the genetic code considered to be "universal"?

2

Blueprint for making proteins

What is the role of DNA in protein production?

3

They translate RNA to protein

What is the role of ribosomes in protein production?

4

Double helix with ladder bases

What are the two descriptions given to DNA structure?

5

Phosphate group, sugar, nitrogen base

What are the three components of a nucleotide?

6

Phophate and sugar

What makes up the "backbone" of DNA?

7

All

Is complementary base pairing in replication, transcription, and/or translation?

8

Semi-conservative replication

What is the process in which the DNA molecule separates into two strands and uses them to produce two complementary strands?

9

Hydrogen

What type of bond connects nitrogen bases together?

10

Peptide

What type of bond connects amino acids together?

11

Phosphodiester

What type of bond connects the sugars and phosphates together?

12

DNA -> RNA -> protein

What is the central dogma of biology?

13

Gene

What is a stretch of DNA or RNA?

14

Nitrogen base, nucleotide, DNA, gene, chromosome, nucleus, cell

Order these from smallest to largest:

chromosome, gene, cell, DNA, nucleotide, nucleus, nitrogen base

15

Transcription

What is the process in which RNA polymerase binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands and uses one strand as a template?

16

Introns

What are sequences of nucleotides not involved in coding for proteins?

17

Exons

What are sequences of nucleotides that are involved in coding for proteins?

18

Translation

What is the process in which the cell uses mRNA to produce proteins and decodes it into polypeptide chains? The amino acid is brought in by tRNA, which has an anticodon.

19

mRNA

When looking for the specific protein a DNA strand codes for, what strand do you use? Do you use the DNA, mRNA, or anticodon strand?

20

Start and stop codons

How does the ribosome know when and where to begin the translation, and where to halt the translation?

21

Methionine, or AUG

What is the start codon?

22

UAA, UAG, UGA

What are the stop codons?

23

7

How many codons are in the following mRNA strand:

AUG GAA CGU UAG AUG GCC UGA

24

7

How many polypeptide chains would form in the following mRNA strand:

AUG GAA CGU UAG AUG GCC UGA

25

UAC CUU GCA AUC UAC CGG ACU

What is the tRNA anticodon strand for the following mRNA strand:

AUG GAA CGU UAG AUG GCC UGA

26

Transcription

Which is first, translation or transcription?

27

Derp

Nice way to remember transcription and translation:

Transcription is where the boss writes the papers telling what his child laborers must do.
Translation is where the child laborers work in a factory by looking at their papers and doing what is on them.

The answer to this card is: derp

28

No

Does DNA leave the nucleus?

29

2

How many strand(s) does DNA have?

30

1

How many strand(s) does RNA have?

31

Uracil

What is the different base that RNA uses?

32

One less oxygen

What is different about the sugar in DNA from RNA?

33

1

How many types of DNA are there?

34

3

How many types of RNA are there?

35

Nuclear pores

Through where does mature mRNA leave the nucleus?

36

Helicase

What enzyme uncoils the DNA molecule in replication?

37

DNA Polymerase

What enzyme unzips the DNA molecule in replication?

38

Ligase

What enzyme seals the DNA molecule after replication is done?

39

DNA Polymerase

What enzyme finds, checks, and corrects the complementary bases in replication?

40

Deoxyribose

What is the pentagon in the DNA structure?

41

Phosphate

What is the circle in the DNA structure?

42

Thymine

What does adenine pair with?

43

Guanine

What does cytosine pair with?

44

Cytosine

What does guanine pair with?

45

Adenine

What does thymine pair with?

46

Thymine

The number of adenines is approximately equal to what nitrogenous base?

47

Cytosine

The number of guanines is approximately equal to what nitrogenous base?

48

%A = %T and %C = %G

What does Chargaff's rules state?

49

Histones and DNA

What are nucleosomes made up of?

50

Nucleus

Where does replication occur?

51

Adenine and guanine

What are the purines?

52

2

How many rings do purines have?

53

Cytosine and thymine

What are the pyrimidines?

54

1

How many rings do pyrimidines have?