Chapter 4 Chemistry Exam
pH of an Acid
pH less than 7
pH of a Base
pH more than 7
Litmus color of Acid; taste of Acid
Red litmus; sour taste
Listmus color of Base; taste of Base
Blue litmus; bitter taste
Acid's Dissociation in Water
Base's Dissociation in Water
Hydroiodic Acid (HI), Hydrobromic acid (HBr), Hydrochloric acid (HCl), Perchloric acid (HClO₄), Sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄), Nitric acid (HNO₃)
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), Lithium hydroxide (LiOH), Potassium hydroxide (KOH)
Metal Oxides in Water Produce...
ex. CaO + H₂O → Ca(OH)₂
Applies to all strong acid and base reactions because the solution is neither acidic or basic in the end.
Water or salt can be formed.
Commonly formed gases in Gas-forming Reactions
CO₂, H₂S, SO₂, NH₃
Difference between Solvent, Solute, and Solution
example of this: saltwater (solution)=salt (solute)+ water (solvent)
Traits of Non-electrolytes
Dissolve without breaking into pieces.
No charged particles; solution doesn't conduct electricity.
Are molecular compounds.
examples: Sugar (glucose) C₆H₁₂O₆, Ethanol CH₃CH₂OH, Ethylene glycol C₂H₆O₂
Traits of Electrolytes
Splits into many charged particles when dissolved.
Ionic compounds that are very soluble mostly split apart into ions.
K.I.S.S. Rules: Soluble Cations
Sodium ion Na⁺, Ammonium NH₄⁺, Potassium ion K⁺
K.I.S.S. Rules: Soluble Anions
Nitrate NO₃⁻, Acetate CH₃COO⁻, Chlorate ClO₃⁻, Perchlorate ClO₄⁻
Silver Ag, mercury Hg, and lead Pb
K.I.S.S. Rules: Mostly Soluble
Chloride Cl⁻, Bromide Br⁻, Iodide I⁻, except with Silver Group: silver Ag, mercury Hg, and lead Pb
K.I.S.S. Rules: Sometimes Soluble
Sulfate SO₄²⁻, except with Silver Group: silver Ag, mercury Hg, and lead Pb, and with Barium Ba, and Strontium Sr
K.I.S.S. Rules: Everything Else
Redox (Oxidation-Reduction) Reaction
A reaction in which electrons are transferred from one substance to another.
Attracts and takes electrons from another substance, it's charge goes down; it is reduced.
OXygen is a good OXidizer (hint hint), and so are the elements around it on the periodic table.
Gives up electrons when they are attracted by another substance, it's charge goes up; it is oxidized.
Li is a good reducer, and so are the elements around it on the periodic table.
Rates how well an atom takes or gives electrons in comparison to others.
Oxidation Number of a Pure Element
Oxidation Number of Monatomic Ions
Equal to the charge on the ion
Oxidation Number of Fluorine (Fl)
-1 in compounds; it's the best at stealing electrons.
Oxidation Number of Chloride Cl⁻, Bromide Br⁻, Iodide I⁻
-1, except against Oxygen and Fluorine
Oxidation Number of Oxygen and Hydrogen
H has a 1+, O has a 2-
Rule for Oxidation Number of Compounds
The sum of oxidation number in a compound must equal the overall charge of the compound.
Redox Reaction occurs when...
The Oxidation Number of an element changes during the reaction; it is reduced or or oxidized.
Only ionize to a small extent. Acetic Acid CH₃CO₂H and Ammonia NH₃ are examples.
Strong acids and strong bases are strong electrolytes.
Steps to Solving Net Ionic Equations
1. Write the equation.
2. Label charges and states of matter.
3. Determine spectator ions and the precipitate
4. Eliminate spectators from both sides
5. Balance the final equation
An acid containing two ionizable hydrogen atoms per molecule. Sulfuric Acid H₂SO₄ is an example.