Ch. 12-13 Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis

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1

Transformation

process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene(s) from another strain of bacteria

2

bacteriophage

Perform an experiment using viruses that infect bacteria called

3

nucleotides

Scientists have found out that DNA consists of long strands of repeating subunits called...

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purines

Double ringed nitrogenous bases

5

pyrimadines

Single ringed nitrogenous bases

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double helix

DNA is composed of 2 strands twisted together, its shape is called...

7

Replication

process by which DNA makes copies of itself

8

Gene

region of DNA that contains the instructions for the making of one particular polypeptide chain

9

Protein synthesis

the manufacturing of proteins

10

Messenger RNA (mRNA)

carries the coded instructions for protein synthesis from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome

11

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

makes up the ribosome

12

Transfer RNA (tRNA)

brings the amino acids to the ribosome in the correct order so that they can be built into the proteins

13

Transcription

process of transferring information from a strand of DNA to a strand of RNA

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Codon

3-based code in DNA or RNA

15

Translation

the process of converting the information in a sequence of nitrogenous bases in mRNA into a sequence of amino acids in protein

16

anticodon

On the other side of the tRNA molecule are 3 nitrogenous bases called...

17

Introns

sequences of bases within genes that are not part of a code for a protein

18

Exons

DNA that actually codes for the protein in short sequences

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Gene mutation

change in the sequence of nucleotide within a gene

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Point mutation

a change in a single base pair in DNA (base-pair substitution)

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frameshift mutation

A mutation in which a single base is added or deleted from DNA is called

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Mutagens

any factor in the environment that causes mutations in DNA to occur

23

double helix and single stranded

what is the structure of DNA &RNA?

24

RNA is a single stranded, the sugar in RNA is ribose, RNA has uracil instead of thymine

what are the differences between DNA and RNA?

25

adenine- thymine, guanine- cytosine

what are the nitrogenous bases of DNA and their pairs?

26

adenine-uracil, guanine-cytosine

what are the nitrogenous bases of RNA and their pairs?

27

Friedrich Miescher

bio chemist that investigated the chemical makeup of the cell nuclei

28

Frederick Griffith

scientist that wanted to know how bacteria makes people sick & how bacteria gives people pneumonia

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Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase

settled the question, whether it was DNA or protein was the genetic material

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Rosalind Franklin

Used the x-ray diffraction to get the general idea of what DNA looks like and clues but didn't reveal the structure of DNA

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James Watson & Francis Crick

figured that the DNA molecule was too wide to be a single strand

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George Beadle and Edward Tatum

geneticist established the connection between genes and enzymes

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caused by errors in replication, transcription, cell division, or external agents

describe gene mutation

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changes the entire structure of protein

describe point mutation

35

shifts the reading of codons by one base

describe frame-shift mutation

36

radiation, chemicals, high temperature

what can cause mutations in DNA to occur?

37

energy they contain can damage or break apart DNA (deletions); frame-shift mutation

why are forms of radiation dangerous? what mutation does it cause?

38

point mutation

what mutation does chemical mutagens cause?

39

Dioxins, Asbestos, Benzene, Formaldehyde,Tobacco smoke

what are some forms of chemical mutagens?

40

Tar in cigarette smoke, Burnt foods, Viruses

what are some of the forms of carcinogens?