Ch. 12-13 Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis
process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene(s) from another strain of bacteria
Perform an experiment using viruses that infect bacteria called
Scientists have found out that DNA consists of long strands of repeating subunits called...
Double ringed nitrogenous bases
Single ringed nitrogenous bases
DNA is composed of 2 strands twisted together, its shape is called...
process by which DNA makes copies of itself
region of DNA that contains the instructions for the making of one particular polypeptide chain
the manufacturing of proteins
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
carries the coded instructions for protein synthesis from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
makes up the ribosome
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
brings the amino acids to the ribosome in the correct order so that they can be built into the proteins
process of transferring information from a strand of DNA to a strand of RNA
3-based code in DNA or RNA
the process of converting the information in a sequence of nitrogenous bases in mRNA into a sequence of amino acids in protein
On the other side of the tRNA molecule are 3 nitrogenous bases called...
sequences of bases within genes that are not part of a code for a protein
DNA that actually codes for the protein in short sequences
change in the sequence of nucleotide within a gene
a change in a single base pair in DNA (base-pair substitution)
A mutation in which a single base is added or deleted from DNA is called
any factor in the environment that causes mutations in DNA to occur
double helix and single stranded
what is the structure of DNA &RNA?
RNA is a single stranded, the sugar in RNA is ribose, RNA has uracil instead of thymine
what are the differences between DNA and RNA?
adenine- thymine, guanine- cytosine
what are the nitrogenous bases of DNA and their pairs?
what are the nitrogenous bases of RNA and their pairs?
bio chemist that investigated the chemical makeup of the cell nuclei
scientist that wanted to know how bacteria makes people sick & how bacteria gives people pneumonia
Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase
settled the question, whether it was DNA or protein was the genetic material
Used the x-ray diffraction to get the general idea of what DNA looks like and clues but didn't reveal the structure of DNA
James Watson & Francis Crick
figured that the DNA molecule was too wide to be a single strand
George Beadle and Edward Tatum
geneticist established the connection between genes and enzymes
caused by errors in replication, transcription, cell division, or external agents
describe gene mutation
changes the entire structure of protein
describe point mutation
shifts the reading of codons by one base
describe frame-shift mutation
radiation, chemicals, high temperature
what can cause mutations in DNA to occur?
energy they contain can damage or break apart DNA (deletions); frame-shift mutation
why are forms of radiation dangerous? what mutation does it cause?
what mutation does chemical mutagens cause?
Dioxins, Asbestos, Benzene, Formaldehyde,Tobacco smoke
what are some forms of chemical mutagens?
Tar in cigarette smoke, Burnt foods, Viruses
what are some of the forms of carcinogens?