Geol. 1403/Cook Final Lecture exam

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GEOL
Chapters 2-16
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1

Which of the following will effectively limit further deflation in a given area?

a) sea level

b) desert pavement

c) a hanging valley

d) the repose level

desert pavement

2

____ is a strong, parallel alignment of coarse mica flakes and/or of different mineral bands in a metamorphic rock.

a) rock cleavage

b) foliation

c) stress streaking

d) marbelizing

foliation

3

Large estuaries are more common on a ____ coastline.

a) submergent

b) emergent

c) stable

d) retreating

submergent

4

The water table is ____.

a) a boundary between unsaturated bedrock and an underground river

b) a boundary between unsaturated bedrock below and saturated bedrock above

c) an underground mass of partly saturated rock

d) a boundary between saturated rock below and unsaturated rock above

a boundary between saturated rock below and unsaturated rock above

5

From the land surface downward to the unweathered bedrock, which of the following is the correct order of the different soil horizons?

a) O, A, E, B, C, bedrock

b) A, B, C, D, E, bedrock

c) E, A, B, C, O, bedrock

d) D, E, C, B, A, bedrock

O, A, E, B, C, bedrock

6

____ is an erosional contact between tilted, older strata below and horizontal, younger strata above.

a) inverse bedding

b) an angular unconformity

c) a disconformity

d) cross cutting

an angular unconformity

7

On ponds and lakes, what term corresponds to a waves length or width, depending on wind direction? It is also the distance the wind blows over a continuous water surface.

fetch

8

The height, length, and period of a wave depend upon _____.

a) the length of time the wind has blown

b) the wind speed

c) the fetch

d) all of these

all of these

9

An unconformity is a buried ____.

a) fault or fracture with older rocks above and younger rocks below

b) surface of erosion separating younger strata above and older strata below

c) fault or fracture with younger strata above and older strata below

d) surface of erosion with older strata above and younger strata below

surface of erosion separating younger strata above and older strata below

10

Which of the following best defines a mineral and a rock?

a) a rock has an orderly, repetitive, geometrical internal arrangement of minerals; a mineral is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of rocks

b) a mineral consists of its constituent atoms arranged in a geometrically repetitive structure; in a rock, the atoms are randomly bonded without any geometric pattern.

c) In a mineral, the constituent atoms are bonded ina regular, repetitive, internal structure; a rock is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains

d) a rock consists of atoms bonded in a regular geometrically predictable arrangement; a mineral is a consolidated aggregate of different rock particles

In a mineral, the constituent atoms are bonded ina regular, repetitive, internal structure; a rock is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains

11

All silicate minerals contain which two elements?

a) iron, silicon

b) silicon, sodium

c) oxygen, carbon

d) silicon, oxygen

silicon, oxygen

12

Which common mineral is composed entirely of silcon and oxygen?

a) calcite

b) diamond

c) olivine

d) quartz

quartz

13

Deep-oceanic trenches (subduction zones) are most abundant around the rim of the _____ ocean basin.

a) Atlantic

b) Indian

c) Arctic

d) Pacific

Pacific

14

Which one of the following stress situations results in folding of flat lying sedimentary strata?

a) horizontally directed; compressive stresses

b) vertically directed; extensional or stretching stresses

c) horizontally directed; extensional stresses

d) vertically directed; compressional stresses

horizontally directed; compressive stresses

15

_____ cement produces bright-red and yellow colors in some sandstone.

a) clay

b) calcite

c) quartz

d) iron oxide

iron oxide

16

What depositional feature is located along the out portion of meander bends?

a) cutbank

b) point bars

cutbank

17

Highest high tides and lowest low tides of the month.

a) neap tides

b) spring tides

spring tides

18

How does an angular boulder weather?

corners are attacked by weathering from three sides, and the edges are attacked from two sides, but the flat surfaces weather more uniformily. Consequently, the corners and edges alter more rapidly.

19

What portion of an angular, fracture bounded granitic block shows the highest rate of weathering?

a) the unfractured interior

b) the edges and corners

c) the crack surfaces not including edges and corners

d) all of the above show equal rates

the edges and corners

20

Where are the two primary lava types found?

Hawaii (pahoehoe, aa)/shield volcanoes

21

____ is an abandoned, cutoff, meander loop.

a) a builtrail

b) an oxbow

c) a cowhock

d) a gatorback

oxbow

22

The strong tendency of certain minerals to break along smooth parallel planes is known as ____.

cleavage

23

The distance between a seismological recording station and the earthquake source is determined from the ____.

a) earthquake magnitude

b) intensity of the earthquake

c) length of the nseismic record

d) arrival times of P and S waves

arrival time of the P and S-waves.

24

What is a waste gas from plants?

oxygen

25

_____ forms from the metamorphism of limestone or dolostone.

a) a migmatite

b) a amphibolite

c) a marble

d) a quartzite

a marble

26

Which of the following metamorphic rocks could be used to neutralize acidic mine waters?

a) granite gneiss

b) quartzite

c) slate

d) marble

marble

27

What major change occurs during metamorphism of limestone to marble?

a) calcite grains grow larger and increase in size

b) clays crystallize to micas, forming a highly foliated , mica-rich rock

c) limestone grains react to form quartz and feldspars

d) calcite grains dissolve away leaving only marble crystals

calcite grains grow larger and increase in size

28

Granite is a _____ igneous rock.

coarse-grained

29

Visible quartz and potassium feldspar grains are the main constituents in a ______.

a) granite

b) gabbro

c) basalt

d) rhyolite

granite

30

Most common form of igneous rock is ____.

a granite

31

granite is ____.

igneous, intrusive rock, that cools slowly, has a course texture

32

What are two primary factors in weathering?

mechanical and chemical

33

what is mechanical weathering?

when physical forces break earth materials into smaller pieces that retain the composition of the parent material.

34

what is chemical weathering?

the decomposition of rocks by chemical alteration of parent material.

35

What are three geologic principles?

1. law of superposition

2. principle of fossil succession

3. principle of cross-cutting relationships

36

What fundamental concept states that in a horizontal sequence of conformable sedimentary strata, each higher bed is younger than the bed below it?

a) law of original correlation

b) theory of correlative deposition

c) law of superposition

d) theory of superstition

law of superposition

37

The ___ is the idea or concept that ancient life forms succeeded each other in a definite, evolutionary pattern and that the contained assemblage of fossils can determine geological ages of strata?

a) principle of cross correlation

b) law of fossil regression

c) law of correlating indexing

d) principle of faunal succession

principle of faunal succession

38

Sedimentary and volcanic rocks are deposited in horizontal layers

a) principle of original horizontality

b) principle of cross-cutting

c) principle of inclusions

principle of original horizontality

39

If a rock strata or fault is cut by another rock strata or fault then the cut strata or fault is older than the strata or fault that cut them.

a) principle of inclusions

b) principle of cross-cutting

c) principle of horizontality

principle of cross-cutting

40

If a rock contains fragments of another rock, then the fragments are older than the rock it encloses

a) principle of inclusions

b) principle of original horizontality

c) principle of cross-cutting

principle of inclusions

41

Name three types of plate boundaries

1. convergent

2. divergent

3. transform

42

Pull -apart rift zones are generally associated with a ____ plate boundary.

a) transform

b) divergent

c) convergent

d) all plate boundaries and movement of India into Eurasia

divergent

43

A transform plate boundary is characterized by ____.

a) strato volcanoes on the edge of a plate and shield volcanoes on the adjacent plate

b) two converging ocean plates meeting head-on and piling up into a mid-ocean ridge

c) a divergent boundary where the continental plate changes to an oceanic plate]d) a deep, verticle fault along which two plates slide past one another in opposite dirextions.

d) a deep, verticle fault along which two plates slide past one another in opposite directions

a deep, verticle fault along which two plates slide past one another in opposite directions

44

Boundaries along which plates slide past one another and crust is neither produced or destroyed are _____.

transform plate boundaries

45

By applying the law of superposition ___ dates can be determined.

a) conventional

b) radiometric

c) relative

d) both relative and radiometric

relative

46

Linear magnetic patterns associated with mid-ocean ridges are configured as ____.

a) concentric circles about a rising plume of hot mantle rocks and magma

b) reversed magnetizations along the rift valleys and normal magnetizations along the ridge

c) normal and reversed magnetized strips roughly paralle to the ridge

d) normal and reversed magnetized strips roughly perpendicular to the ridge axis

normal and reversed magnetized strips roughly parallel to the ridge.

47

Deep-focus earthquakes are associated with ________ plate boundaries.

convergent (subducting)

48

________ plate boundaries have the largest magnitude earthquakes.

transform and convergent

49

Define an artesian aquifer.

a confined aquifer whose water is pressurized. The pressure forces the water to the surface without assistance.

50

Example of cross cutting

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51

example of divergent boundary/oceanic

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52

example of convergent boundary/ocean to ocean

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53

example divergent boundary/continent to continent

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54

example convergent boundary/ocean to continent

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55

example of the hydrologic cycle

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56

example of continental convergent boundary

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57

example of the rock cycle

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58

The process whereby water continually circulates between the earth's surface and the atmosphere.

hydrologic cycle

59

____ is the release of water vapor to the atmosphere by plants.

a) runoff

b) evaporation

c) transpiration

d) infiltration

e) precipitation

transpiration

60

Water that flows over land, until it reaches lakes, rivers or other areas.

surface runoff

61

Which component of the hydrologic cycle describes the recharge of water to the soil and groundwater?

a) transpiration

b) infiltration

c) precipitation

d) evaporation

e) runoff

infiltration

62

changes from gas state to liquid state

condensation

63

to change from liquid to vapor

evaporation

64

Define a mineral

a naturally occuring inorganic solid with a definite chemical composition and a definite internal structure

65

what is the rock cycle?

the process by which rocks are transformed from one class to another.

66

The Mid Atlantic ridge is associated with a ______.

a) oceanic divergent boundary

b) continental divergent boundary

c) oceanic/continental convergent boundary

d) oceanic convergent boundary

oceanic divergent boundary

67

What is the effect of a oceanic divergent boundary?

a) new oceanic crust is formed in the rift zone

b) new continental crust formed in the rift zone

c) continental volcanic arc forms new mountains

d) oceanic island arch forms

new oceanic crust is formed in the rift zone

68

East African Rift is associated with a _____.

a) oceanic divergent boundary

b) continental divergent boundary

c) oceanic/continental convergent boundary

d) oceanic convergent boundary

continental divergent boundary

69

What is the effect if a continental divergent boundary?

a) new oceanic crust is formed in the rift zone

b) new continental crust formed in the rift zone

c) continental volcanic arc forms new mountains

d) oceanic island arch forms

new continental crust formed in the rift zone

70

The Andes Mountains are associated with ____?

a) oceanic divergent boundary

b) continental divergent boundary

c) oceanic/continental convergent boundary

d) oceanic convergent boundary

oceanic/continental convergent boundary

71

What is the effect of a oceanic/continental convergent boundary?

a) new oceanic crust is formed in the rift zone

b) new continental crust formed in the rift zone

c) continental volcanic arc forms new mountains

d) oceanic island arch forms

continental volcanic arc forms new mountains

72

The Aleutian Islands are associated with ____.

a) oceanic divergent boundary

b) continental divergent boundary

c) oceanic/continental convergent boundary

d) oceanic convergent boundary

oceanic convergent boundary

73

What is the effect of a oceanic convergent boundary?

a) new oceanic crust is formed in the rift zone

b) new continental crust formed in the rift zone

c) continental volcanic arc forms new mountains

d) oceanic island arch forms

oceanic island arch forms

74

The Alps and Appalachian Mountains are associated with ____.

a) continent/continent convergent boundary

b) continental transform boundary

c) oceanic/continental convergent boundary

d) oceanic/oceanic conbvergent boundary

continent/continent convergent boundary

75

What is the effect of a continent/continent convergent boundary?

a) new mountain range forms

b) plates slide past one another

c) oceanic island arch forms

d) continental volcanic arc forms new mountains

new mountain range forms

76

The San Andreas Fault is associated with ____.

a) continental transform boundary

b) continent/continent convergent boundary

c) oceanic/continental convbergent boundary

d) ocean/ocean convergent boundary

continental transform boundary

77

What is the effect of a continental transform boundary?

a) plates slide past one another

b) new mountain range forms'

c) oceanic island arch forms

d) continental volcanic arc forms new mountains

plates slide past one another