Sociology final

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1

Which of the following best describes how deviance is defined?

Deviance is socially defined.

2

Societies practice social control to maintain ________.

social order

3

According to C. Wright Mills, which of the following people is most likely to be a member of the power elite?

a senator

4

According to social disorganization theory, crime is most likely to occur where?

A community where neighbors don't know each other very well

5

Shaw and McKay found that crime is linked primarily to ________.

wealth

6

______ deviance is a violation of norms that ______result in a person being labeled a deviant.

primary; does not

7

Which of the following is an example of corporate crime?

Embezzlement

8

Spousal abuse is an example of a ________.

violent crime

9

What is a disadvantage of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)?

The NCVS may be unable to reach important groups, such as those without phones.

10

What factor makes caste systems closed?

People cannot change their social standings.

11

What factor makes class systems open?

They allow for movement between the classes.

12

Which of these systems allows for the most social mobility?

class

13

In the United States, most people define themselves as:

middle class

14

Structural mobility occurs when:

A large group moves up or down the class ladder due to societal changes

15

The behaviors, customs, and norms associated with a class are known as:

class traits

16

Occupational prestige means that jobs are:

Not equally valued

17

Social stratification is a system that:

Ranks society members into categories

18

When Karl Marx said workers experience alienation, he meant that workers:

do not feel connected to their work

19

Conflict theorists view capitalists as those who:

Get rich while workers stay poor

20

Sociologists tend to define family in terms of

how a given society sanctions the relationships of people who are connected through blood, marriage, or adoption

21

A woman being married to two men would be an example of:

polyandry

22

A child who associates his line of descent with his father's side only is part of a _____ society.

patrilineal

23

The majority of U.S. children live in:

two-parent households

24

Same-sex couple households account for _____ percent of U.S. households.

1

25

The median age of first marriage has ______ in the last fifty years.

increased for both men and women

26

Children of divorced parents are _______ to divorce in their own marriage than children of parents who stayed married.

more likely

27

In general, children in ______ households benefit from divorce.

high conflict

28

Which type of child abuse is most prevalent in the United States?

neglect

29

The population of the planet doubled in fifty years to reach _______ in 1999?

6 billion

30

What does carrying capacity refer to?

The amount of life that can be supported sustainably in a particular environment

31

What three factors did Malthus believe would limit human population?

War, famine, and disease

32

What are the prerequisites for the existence of a city?

a.Good environment with water and a favorable climate
b. Advanced agricultural technology
c. Strong social organization
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE

33

What led to the creation of the exurbs?

Urban sprawl and crowds moving into the city

34

How does gentrification affect cities?

Less affluent residents are pushed into less desirable areas.

35

Urbanization includes the sociological study of what?

a. Urban economics
b. Urban politics
c. Urban environments
ALL OF THE ABOVE

36

what are ways that human activity impacts the water supply?

A Creating sewage
B Spreading chemicals
C Increasing radioactivity
D All of the above

37

what is not a negative outcome of shoreline dredging?

  1. Damaged coral reefs
  2. Death of marine life
  3. Ruined sea grass beds
  4. Reduction of human population

Reduction of human population

38

what are the two primary methods of waste disposal?

Landfill and incineration

39

Where does a large percentage of e-waste wind up?

Recycled in peripheral nations

40

what types of municipal projects often result in environmental racism?

Toxic dumps or other objectionable projects