(Bio) Chapter 4: Nucleic Acids [1]

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1

Overview:

Overview:

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Nucleic acids are either two things, single stranded ___ or double stranded ____.

RNA; DNA

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Nucleic acids contain either DNA or RNA, which are required to code for what?

The proteins required for life.

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How does the the information network work?

Info in DNA > RNA > Specific Proteins

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>Nucleic Acids

>Nucleic Acids

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What is the primary role of NUCLEIC ACIDS?

Store and transmit hereditary information.

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What are nucleic acids MADE of? What creates them? Monomers called...

Nucleotides

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Each Nucleotide has three components, what are they??

Pentose Sugar, Phosphate group, and a Nitrogen containing base.

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What is a phosphodiester linkage?

A bond that joins two nucleotides within both DNA and RNA.

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Which one, RNA or DNA, has one less Oxygen in the ribose sugar?

DNA

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Each Nucleotide has three components, what are they??

Pentose Sugar, Phosphate group, and a Nitrogen containing base.

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Whay is complementary base pairing?

The joining of Nitrogen containing bases in a DNA/RNA molecule.

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What are the two categories of Nitrogen containing bases?

Purines and Pyrimidines.

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What are the TWO Purines?

Adenine (A) and Guanine (G)

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What are the TWO Pyrimidines?

Thymine (T) and Cytosine (C)

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Thymine (T) and Cytosine (C), Adenine (A) and Guanine (G); Which pair with which IN DNA?

A and T ; G and C

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IN RNA, the pairing is G and C, but A is NOT paired with T, it is paired with...

URACIL, A and U go together in RNA.

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Why can complementary base pairing happen? (3 reasons)

1) There are sites for H bonding
2) The geometry of the sugar phosphate backbone allows A, T, C, and G to connect by facing them a certain way.
3) Purines are actually DOUBLE RINGED, and Pyrimidines are SINGLE RINGED

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True or false: Because DNA has Thymine and RNA has Uracil, the two CANNOT complementary base pair with one another.

FALSE, they CAN.

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What type of bond can contribute to the shape of the RNA molecule, Covalent or H bonding?

H bonding.

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RNA is generally single stranded, but does it ever have double strands?

YES, when RNA folds it may become double stranded.

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>Other roles of Nucleotides

>Other roles of Nucleotides

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Besides DNA, what other "things" do Nucleotides help with?

ATP, GTP, and cAMP.

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What does ATP do?

Acts as an energy transducer in biochemical reactions.

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What about GTP?

It's an energy source and it will transfer info from environment to body.

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And cAMP?

Involved in hormones and nervous system.

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Who said that life CAN ONLY come from life? And in what time?

Louis pasteur (1660)

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What kind of amino acids did scientists find in meteors?

Both left AND right.

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What kind of RNA catalyze reactions?

Ribozymes

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RNA could have acted as a catalyst for its own what and what?

Replication and protein synthesis.

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Peptide linkages are catalyzed (sped up) by a what?

Ribozyme

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In retroviruses, there is a protein that catalyzes for what?

RNA and DNA.

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Yay! Short chapter!!

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