Feminism ch 12

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  1. What are the two separate but related questions feminist ethics asks? Give an account of how each question is answered. This can be accomplished by reading the chapter.
  1. Is there a morally correct way for society to approach the issue of gender equality?
  2. Is ethics gender specific- meaning is there an approach to ethics that is typical fir women and another for men?
  1. What qualifies someone as a feminist according to the classical feminist?

Believing women and men should have equal opportunities that women should not be discriminated against based on gender, and that women and men should get equal pay for equal work, anyone who agrees as a feminist

  1. The text suggests that “women and men tend to view the entire field of ethics from different viewpoints.” In what way does the text suggest women and men view ethics?

Men tend to think of morality in terms of rule's of conduct, justice, and fairness.

Women tend to think of morality in terms of relationships, of staying friends, and caring for those who are close to you or fir whom you have accepted responsibility.


Why and in what ways does the text denote that “we are now moving away from what is known as ‘gender specific’ language toward ‘gender neutral’ language?” Give specific examples.

By using the word He for a man or a woman and man for all human kind, because many believe that even when used with the best intentions, gender specific terms subconsciously tell us that being Male is somehow more important than being female Anna that certain social roles arete best performed by men.


What are the two questions being asked “when we ask whether sexual equality exists?” What is the difference between these two questions?

  1. Does cultural and social equality exist?
  2. Does biological equality exist?

The difference between a descriptive and normative approach. Descriptive theory of equality compares capabilities and pronounces people to be "similar " or "dissimilar."

A normative theory of equality may or may not look at the facts presented by the descriptive theory but states that people ought to be treated a certain way (1) the same (2) similarly under similar conditions or (3) differently and if normative theory asserts that equality is a good thing it will present a theory for how to achieve it


What does sexual dimorphism have to do with this?

Two sexes of a species look very different with one sex usually being much bigger than the other. The bigger sex usually dominates the smaller sex and that one individual of the bigger sex can have many mates of the smaller sex, but not vice versa


What do recent studies reveal with regards to dealing with math problems?

Men and women actually use their brains differently when dealing with the same math problems, but they generally reach the same results in the same amount of time.


The text points out that “it was common practice in Western culture to assume that male and female natures were essentially different.” What was this assumption? “What was this assumption based on?”

That male nature was somehow more normal than female nature.

Prejudice, objectivity describing things as they saw them not as they believed they ought to be nor as they appear in public life


What is the difference between the private and public spheres? What has this to do with feminism?

Private sphere: taking care of the home

Public sphere: the work force getting paid for work


In what way does Rosenstand suggest women were perceived some 10,000 years ago? When did this view change and why did it change?


  1. Who is Hildegard of Bingen?

A German abbeys who wrote books on Gods plan for humanity, composed songs, wrote 1st morality play about battle between good and evil (Ordo Virtuem)


Provide “a brief overview” of the three waves of feminism.

1 wave the nineteenth amendment in 1920 which granted women the right to vote,rights for women to self determination, rights to inherit and own property, even in marriage, rights to raise one's children

2 wave the primary goal was the creation of an equal opportunity society without discrimination because of one's sex a society in which women as well as men would vesse able to freely choose their way of life and occupations, up bringing off boys and girls attempting to change the stereotypical gender roles to a more egalitarian pattern

3 wave radical feminism focuses on identifying and eliminating the roots of still existing discrimination, feminist environmentalism, easier access to child care for working women and combating racial and economic discrimination.


To what does the first wave of feminism generally refer? What did Poulain de la Barre argue? What was Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s and Talleyrand’s view of women? Who was Mary Wollstonecraft and what did she argue?

Feminist movement right to vote

She argued that men and women are fundamentally similar because they have the same powers of reasoning.

Women belonged at home as intelligent but subordinate partners to their spouses

A British philosopher who addressed women's situation, she suggested not only that it it unfair to women to socialize them to be uneducated, unthinking creatures who are only eager to please but also that it is unfair to men, because although a man may fall in love with that kind of woman, he certainly won't want to live with her


The text provides a brief description of seven women who were very influential to moral philosophy in box 12.5. Acquaint yourself with them and their positions.

  1. Phintys of sparta (On the Moderation of Women)held that it was no unfitting foe women to philosophize and that courage, justice, and wisdom were common to women as well as men
  2. Marina of Neocaesaria taught that women were createdin Gods image and had rational souls, with a rational soul one is capable of becoming morally virtuous and thus eligible for entry into heaven after death
  3. Murasaki Shikibu ( Gengi Monogatari The Tale of Gengi)Japanese courtier in the first novel led her main character the woman Ukifune, to a realization of freedom and moral responsibility in the face of existential dread
  4. Marie le jars de Gournay (Equality between men and women)the editor of Montaignes Essays, women are equal to men in their capacity fir moral raining and action, sexual differences are related exclusively to reproduction and have other wise bo bearing on Male or female nature
  5. Christine de Pizan ( The city of women) she argued that oppression of women was counterproductive to the improvement of society and that women should strive to avoid activities that dull their intellect sunse they were limited by certain social roles
  6. Mary Astell worked on a synthesis of ther traditions of Locke and Descrates abs believed that reason ought to govern our passions. Universal education for women and men
  7. Antoinette Brown Blackwell first ordained American woman, maintained women and men make moral judgments differently, women bring compassion to justice and caring to the concept of rights

Can a conservative be a feminist?” What is the argument and under which wave does this fall?

Yes, if women are in favor of participating in public life women having equal access to education, job market they after qualified for and women having a choice whether they wish to raise families, be personals or both can such women be feminist or does one have to subscribe to liberal moral values in order to be part of the feminist movement, 3rd wave or 4th wave conservative women


What is the difference (in other words define) between classical feminism, difference feminism, radical feminism (what does radical mean here), and equity feminism?

Classical feminism liberal feminism which calls for men and women to be considered as persons first and gendered beings second

Difference feminism holds that women and men possess fundamentally different qualities and that both genders should learn from each other.

Radical feminism not to mount the barricades but to seek out and expose the root of the problem of gender discrimination

Equity feminism the battle for equality has been won, that we should not think of women as victims of patriarchy any longer and that we can now adopt any kind of gender roles we like because gender discrimination is by and large a thing of the past


How does the classical feminist account for gender differences? What does Simone de Beauvoir argue in her work The Second Sex? What does the title suggest? What is bad faith? What has bad faith to do with gender roles? Why does Beauvoir say about why women are weak? How does she describe women and why does she say that “women are all these things?”

Accuses the philosophical tradition of seeing man as the typical human being so woman thus becomes atypical.

That a woman must shed her culturally given role as the second sex

Any attempt at claiming we have to do or be something is nothing but a poor excuse for wanting to make a choice

We must fight the cultural traps of gender roles and their assumption that this is how we have to be because that it's nothing but a poor excuse for not making our own choices.

They are uneducated


What does the text say about whether one can “choose our gender at all?” What did psychologists of the 1960s and 1970s say regarding choosing gender? What is the story of David Reimer and what does this say about choosing gender?

They generally assumed that sex roles wre purely a matter of upbringing, or nurture.

He lost his penis to a botched circumcision as an infant and was raised as a girl, he never felt like a girl

Nature being more important