Fatty acids are predominately ___________ molecules consisting of long chain of carbons with an oxygen and hydroxyl group at one end
A fatty acid is said to be __________ if each carbon is joined to its neighboring carbons by a single bond.
If one or more double bonds is present, the fatty acid is said to be_____________.
first double bond
Unsaturated fatty acids are classified based on the position of the________________ from the end of the chain. The counting starts at the end of the fatty acid molecule without the oxygens.
n-3 (also called omega-3)
If the first double bond is in the third position, the fatty acid is classified as ____________________.
While a saturated fatty acid is a straight molecule on the average, the double bond in an unsaturated fatty acid produces a _____ in the molecule.This because a double bond cannot rotate.
The bend in the carbon chain, however, is much more pronounced in the _____ isomer compared to the______ isomer.
cis fatty acids (and triacylglycerols made from them) do not _______ as readily as trans fatty acids.
cis, trans, trans
___ is the more biological form. ____ is the more chemical form. _____ is not easily oxidized.
Due to the larger bend, the cis isomers cannot line up next to one another in as ordered a fashion as the trans isomers.
If a fatty acid has more than one double bond in the carbon chain, the fatty acid is termed ______________.
essential fatty acids, n-3, n-6
Two types of polyunsaturated fatty acids are of particular importance in the diet, because they are used in the body, but cannot be synthesized by our enzymes or, indeed, by those of any mammal. These two types of _________________ are _____ and _______
_______________is the important n-6 fatty acid in the diet.
__________________ is the important n-3 fatty acid.
Linoleic acid ultimately can be be converted to _________________, an important precursor of certain regulatory molecules
Alpha linoleic acid → DHA/EPA →membrane phospholipids → ________________.
n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in membranes can also directly affect opening and closing of ion channels and thus the electrical excitability of membranes. In this way they potentially can influence _____________________.
__________________ are synthesized from three fatty acids joined together by one glycerol molecule.
_______________ by itself is a small carbohydrate molecule containing three carbons.
Triacylglycerols are the form in which fat energy is stored in ___________________.
Triacylglycerols are sometimes referred to as ______________.
unsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, trans
The presence of unsaturated fatty acids in a triacylglycerol molecule makes it more fluid. This is due to the presence of the kinks in _______________ which keeps the fatty acid chains from aligning uniformly. This is why plant oils, which contain primarily unsaturated fatty acids, are more liquid than animal fats. As noted above, when_____________ are made, the ______ configuration of the double bond also produces a straighter chain of carbons and thus the resulting triacylglycerols tend to be more solid.
What molecule in the diet is eventually converted to arachidonic acid, as described above?
DHA / EPA
Name an n-3 fatty acid derived from alpha-linoleic acid and also found in oily fish. (Use 3 letter abbrev.)
What general term refers to a regulatory molecule that acts locally (mm to cm)?
Which type of isomer is a fatty acid found in triacylglycerols of vegetable oils?