Chapter 6 Protein Amino Acids

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1

proteins

compounds composed of carbon hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms arranged into amino acids linked in a chain. Some amino acids contain sulfur atoms

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amino acids

building block of proteins. each contains an amino group, an acid group, a hydrogen atom, and a distinctive side group, all attached to a central carbon atom

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nonessential amino acids

amino acids that the body can synthesize

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essential amino acids

amino acids that the body cannot synthesize in amounts sufficient to me physiological needs

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conditionally essential amino acids

an amino acid that is normally nonessential but must be supplied by the diet in special circumstances when the need for it exceeds the body's ability to produce it

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peptide bond

a bond that connects the acid end of one amino acid with the amino end of another, forming a link in a protein chain

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dipeptide

two amino acids bonded together

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tripeptide

three amino acids bonded together

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polypeptide

many (ten or more) amino acids bonded together

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hemoglobin

the globular protein of the red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the cell throughout the body.

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denaturation

the change in a proteins shape and consequent loss of its function brought about by heat, agitation, acid, base, alcohol, heavy metals, or other agents

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pepsin

a gastric enzyme that hydrolyzes protein. blank is secreted in an inactive form, pepsinogen, which is activated by hydrochloric acid in the stomach

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proteases

enzyme that hydrolyze protein

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peptidase

a digestive enzyme that hydrolyzes peptide bonds. tripeptidases cleave tripeptides; dipeptase cleave dipeptides. Endopetidases cleave peptide bonds within chain to create smaller fragments, whereas exopeptidases cleave bonds at the ends to release free amino acids.

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sickle cell anemia

a hereditary form of anemia characterized by abnormal sickle or crescent shaped red blood cells. sickled cells interfere with oxygen transport and blood flow. Symptoms are precipitated by dehydration and insufficient oxygen (as many occur at high altitudes) and include hemolytic anemia (red blood cells burst), fever, and severe pain in the joints and abdomen.

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gene expression

the process by which a cell converts the genetic code into RNA and protein

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matrix

the basic substance that give form to a developing structure; in the body, the formative cells from which teeth and bones grow

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collagen

the protein from which connective tissues such as scars, tendons, ligaments, and the foundations of bones and teeth are made.

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enzymes

proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process; protein catalysts

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fluid balance

maintenance of the proper types and amounts of fluid in each compartment of the body fluids

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edema

the swelling of body tissue caused by excessive amounts of fluid in the interstitial spaces, seen in protein deficiency (among other conditions)

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acids

compounds that release hydrogen ions in a solution

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bases

compounds that accept hydrogen ions in a solution

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acidosis

above normal acidity in the blood and body fluids

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alkalosis

above normal alkalinity in the blood and body fluids

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antigens

substances that elicit the formation of antibodies or an inflammation reaction from the immune system. a bacterium a virus, a toxin, and a protein in food that causes allergy are all examples of blanks

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antibodies

large proteins of the blood and body fluids, produced by the immune system in response to the invasion of the body by foreign molecules (usually proteins called antigens)

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immunity

the body's ability to defend itself against diseases

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protein turnover

the degradation and synthesis of protein

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amino acid pool

the supply of amino acids derived from either food proteins or body proteins that collect in the cells and circulation blood and stand ready to be incorporated in proteins and other compounds or used for energy

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nitrogen balance

the amount of nitogen consumed (N in) as compared with the amount of nitrogen excreted (N out) in a given period of time.

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neurotransmitters

chemicals that are released at the end of a nerve cell when a nerve impulse arrive there. They diffuse across the gap to the next cell and alter the membrane of that second call to either inhibit or excite it

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deamination

removal of the amino (NH2) group from a compound such as an amino acid.

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high quality proteins

dietary proteins containing all the essential amino acids in relatively the same amounts that human beings require. they may also contain nonessential amino acids.

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protein digestibility

a measure of the amount of amino acids absorbed from a given protein intake.

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limiting amino acid

the essential amino acid found in the shortest supply relative to the amounts needed for protein synthesis in the body. four amino acids are most likely to be limiting: lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan

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reference protein

a standard against which to measure the quality of other porteins

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complementary proteins

two or more dietary proteins whose amino acid assortments complement each other in such a way that essential amino acids missing from one are supplied by the other

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protein-energy malnutrition

a deficiency of protein, energy, or both, including kwashiorkor, marasmus, and instances in which they overlap.

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acute PEM

protein energy malnutrion caused by recent severe food restriction; characterized in children by short height for age (stuntin)

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marasmus

a form of PEM that results from a sever deprivation or impaired absorption of energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals`

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kwashiorkor

a form of PEM that results either from inadequate protein intake or more commonly, form infections

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chronic PEM

protein-energy malnutrition caused by long term food deprivation; characterized in children by short height for age

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dysentery

an infection of the digestive tract that causes diarrhea

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whey protein

a by product of cheese production; falsely promoted as increasing muscle mass. blank is the watery part of milk that separates from the curds.

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branched-chain amino acids

the essential amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which are present in large amounts in skeletal muscle tissue; falsely promoted as fuel for exercising muscles.