3.5 nucleotides and nucleic acids

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 8 years ago by chemistry_goo
155 views
Grade levels:
6th grade, 7th grade, 8th grade, 9th grade, 10th grade, 11th grade, 12th grade, College: First year, College: Second year, College: Third year, College: Fourth year
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Nucleic acids are

another class of macromolecules, in this case, long polymers assembled from repeating monomers called nucleotides

2

two types of nucleic acids are

DNA and RNA

3

DNA

stores the hereditary info responsible for inherited traits in all eukaryotes and prokaryotes in a large group of viruses

4

RNA

hereditary molecule of another large group of viruses;three major types of RNA are involved in protein synthesis

5

in all organisms , one major type of RNA ...

carries the instructions for assembling proteins from DNA to the sites where the proteins are made inside cells(mRNA)

6

Another major type of RNA...

forms part of ribosomes, the structural units that assemble proteins(rRna)

7

and a third type of RNA

brings amino acids to the ribosomes for their assembly into proteins (tRNA)

8

A nucleotide

the monomer of nucleic acids, consists of three parts linked together by covalent bonds

9

name the three parts of the nucleotide..?

1)a nitrogenous base( a nitrogen-containing molecule that accepts protons), formed from rings of carbon and nitrogen atoms

2) A five-carbon, ring-shaped sugar
3)One to three phosphate groups

10

overall structure of a nucleotide

nitrogenous
base

phosphate group-pog-pog-5-carbon
sugar

11

the two types of nitrogenous bases are

pyrimidines and purines

12

pyrimidines

-nitrogenous bases with one carbon-nitrogen ring
-Uracil(U), thymine (T), and cytosine (C)

13

purines

-nitrogenous bases with two carbon-nitrogen rings
-Adenine (A) and guanine (G)

14

in nucleotides, the nitrogenous bases link covalently to either

deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA

15

Nucleotides containing deoxyribose are called

deoxyribonucleotides

16

nucleotides containing ribose

ribonucleotides

17

dexoyribose and ribose are

five-carbon sugars

18

the carbons of these sugars are numbered with a prime symbol

-1' 2' 3' 4' 5'-

19

The two sugars differ only in the

chemical group bound to the 2' carbon (-H in deoxyribose,-OH in ribose)

20

the prefix -deoxyin deoxyribose indicates

oxygen is absent at this position in the DNA sugar

21

in individual, unlinked nucleotides, a chain of one,two,or three phosphate groups

bonds to the ribose or deoxyribose sugar at the 5' carbon

22

nucleotides are called

monophosphates, diphosphates, or triphosphates according to the length of this phosphate chain

23

nucleoside

a structure containing only a nitrogenous base and a face carbon sugar

24

Thus what are nucleotides?

nucleoside phosphates

25

adenosine

the nucleoside containing adenine and ribose

26

adding on phosphate group to the structure adenosine

adenosine monophosphate (AMP)

27

adding two phosphate groups produces

adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

28

adding three phosphate groups produces

adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

29

the corresponding adenine-deoxyribose complexes are named

deoxyadenosine monophosphate, deoxyadenosine diphosphate

30

the lowercase in the abbreviations indicate

that the nucleoside contains the deoxyribose form of the sugar

31

nuceotides perform many functions in cells in addition to

serving as the building blocks of nucleic acids

32

Two ribose containing nucleotides (adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and guanosine triphosphate(GTP)

primary molecules that transport chemical energy from one reaction system another; the same nucleotides regulate and adjust cellular activity

33

molecules derived from nucleotides play important roles

biochemical reactions by delivering reactants or electrons from one system to another

34

Nucleic Acids DNA and RNA are the

informational molecules of all organisms

35

phosphodeister bond

DNA and RNA consist of polynucleotide chains, with one nucleotide linked to the next by

36

DNA and RNA consist of

chains of nucleotides,polynucleotide chains, with one nucleotide linked to the next by a bridging phosphate group between the 5' carbon of one sugar and the 3' carbon of the next sugar in line

37

this arrangement of alternating sugar and phosphate groups forms the

backbone of a nucleic acid chain

38

the nitogenous bases of the nucleotides

project from this backbone

39

Each nucleotide of a DNA chain contains a

deoxyribose and one of the four bases A,T,G,C

40

Each nucleotide of an RNA chain contains

ribose and one of the four bases A,U,G,C

41

Thymine and Uracil differ only in a single functional group:

in T a methyl (-CH₃) group is linked to the ring, but in U it is replaced by hydrogen

42

the differences in sugar and pyrimidine bases between DNA and RNA account for

important differences in the structure and functions of these nucleic acids inside cells

43

dna molecules in cells consist of

two nucleotide chains wound together

44

in cells, dna takes the form of a

double helix, first discovered by James Watson and Francis Crick

45

the dna molecule is a

double-helix (double stranded) consisting of two nucleotide chains wrapped around each other in a spiral that resembles a twisted ladder

46

the sides of the ladder are the

sugar-phosphate backbones of the two chains, which twist around each other in a right-handed direction to form the double spiral

47

the rungs of the ladder are the

nitrogenous bases,which extend inward from the sugars toward the center of the helix

48

each rung consists of a pair of

nitrogenous bases held in a flat plane roughly perpendicular to the long axis of the helix

49

the two nucleotide chains of a DNA double helix are held together primarily by

hydrogen bonds between the base pairs

50

slightly more than "" base pairs are packed into each turn of the double helix

10

51

A DNA double-helix molecule is also referred to as a

double-stranded DNA

52

the space seperating the sugar-phosphate backbones of a DNA double helix is just wide enough to accommodate a

base pair that consists of one pure and one pyrimidine

53

purine-purine are too
pyrimidine-pyrimidine are too

wide
narrow

54

a base pair consists of one

purine and one pyrimidine

55

Adenine pairs only with

thymine (A-T),forming two stabilizing hydrogen bonds

56

Guanine pairs only with

cytosine (G-C), forming three hydrogen bonds

57

the formation of A-T and G-C allows

the sequence of one nucleotide chain to determine the sequence of its partner in the double helix

58

the nucleotide sequence of one chain is said to be

complementary the nucleotide sequence of the other chain

59

in DNA replication, one nucleotide chain is used as a

template for the assembly of a complementary chain according to the A-T and G-C base-pairing rules

60

How does complementary base pairing allow DNA moleucules to be replicated precisely

1. parent DNA molecule: two complementary strands of base-paired
nucleotides
2.duplication begins;the two strand unwind and separate from each other
3. each "old" strand serves as a template for addition of bases according to the A-T AND G-C base-pairing rules
4. bases positioned on each old strand are joined together into a "new" strand. Each half-old, half-new DNA molecule is an exact duplicate of the parent molecule

61

RNA molecules are usually

single nucleotide chains

62

RNA molecules exist mainly as

single polynucleotide chains (single-stranded)

63

however,RNA molecules can...

fold back on themselves to form double-helical regions

64

what is vital to RNA functions

the pattern of the fold-back double helices

65

"hybrid" double helices

(an RNA chain paired with a DNA chain) are formed temporarily when RNA copies DNA

66

In RNA, the uracil (U) base takes the place of

thymine (T), forming A-U base pairs

67

study break 3.5

sb3.5

68

1.What is the monomer of a nucleic macromolecule?

nucleic acids are formed from nucleotide monomers. a nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar,and a phosphate

69

2.what are the chemical differences between DNA and RNA?

in DNA, the five-carbon sugar is deoxyribose;in RNA it is ribose. DNA has the pyrimidine nitrogenous base T (thymine) and RNA has U (uracil).

70

How are the enzymes that synthesize fatty acids and cholesterol regulated in the cells?

transcription factors and SREBPs