Holt World History: Chapter 4 Study Guide - Ancient China Flashcards


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Holt World History
Chapter 4
Grade levels:
9th grade, 10th grade, 11th grade, 12th grade
Subjects:
world history, grafton high school, juvenile nonfiction, history
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1

Zhongguo

"Middle Kingdom" or center of the world

2

loess

yellow soil

3

China Proper

the heart of China

4

autocracy

total power for emperor

5

oracle bones

used by Shang priests to make predictions

6

bureaucracy

government organized into different levels and tasks

7

animism

belief that spirits inhabit everything

8

Analects

the collected teachings of Confucius

9

Laozi

founder of Daoism

10

Silk Road

famous trade route

11

Huang, Chang, and Xi

the three major rivers of China

12

The Xia

rulers over the Neolithic people in China

13

The Chinese built dikes along the Huang river to

protect against flooding

14

By introducing and controlling irrigation and flooding

the Shang were able to cement their power over the people

15

Rebels were able to justify their action of overthrowing a dynasty by

stating that the old dynasty had lost the Mandate of Heaven

16

This policy steadied food prices and supplies

leveling

17

Discontent among people in this dynasty was partly due to forced labor

Qin

18

These were among the teachings of Confucius

importance of family, respect for elders, and reverence for ancestors

19

During the fall of the Han dynasty,

Buddhism has risen in China

20

Laozi's teachings different from Confucius by that it

did not address politics

21

Dikes built on the Huang river

did more harm than good when the silt built up in the river channel

22

This was the first people of ancient China

Xia

23

Commercial waterways were offered to the Chinese people

on the Huang, Chang, and Xi rivers

24

The Qin dynasty

restricted free speech

25

The Chinese written language

can be read by many dialects

26

The Han civil service system was open to those

who had training and tested to get a government position

27

The Qin's public works projects were built

by peasants

28

Confucius stated that a

strong leader would be a virtuous leader

29

Loess is the reason for this other name of the Huang River (fill in the blank)

Yellow

30

Women gained respect in society

when they become members

31

Acupuncture

is an advancement in Chinese medicine

32

Shang priests used these to make predictions and answer questions (fill in the blank)

oracle bones

33

The Han invented this and it has had a lasting effect on civilizations around the world

paper

34

The concepts of yin and yang reflected an overall Chinese belief of (fill in the blank)

balance

35

His teachings attempted to correct political disorder (fill in the blank)

Confucius's

36

The Shang government can be described as a bureaucracy and it (short answer)

the bureaucracy helped keep China organized and therefore China was able to expand

37

Confucius taught that strong leaders were virtuous leaders (short answer)

and Mencius expanded on the idea by stating that the people had the right to overthrow an unjust leader.

38

The Mandate of Heaven (short answer)

was the right to rule given by God and New dynasties were able to justify their takeover by claiming that the old dynasty had lost the Mandate of Heaven.

39

Discuss how beliefs such as animism, Daoism, and the teachings of Confucius are reflected in Chinese traditions and innovations. (Essay)

Animism and Daoism are based on the idea that there is a life force that is part of all living things. Keeping the life force running smoothly is the theory behind the Chinese practice of acupuncture. The belief in the life-force also seems to be echoed in the traditional reverence for ancestors, that is central to the Shang religion that incorporated animism and later the teachings of Confucius. The traditional importance of family is also a central part of Confucianism.

40

Did any dynasty achieve dualism? Explain. (Essay)

The Han came closest to achieving dualism, or the balance that is the basis for much of Chinese philosophy. Their rule followed that of the Qin, a dynasty that was too closely based on the harsh principles of Legalism. The Han were able to adopt the strong foundation provided by Legalism, but moderated it with Confucianism. As Confucius taught, the Han attempted to provide leadership that would better the people and their lives. Their success is evident in their ability to keep peace for a while, and measures such as leveling, which showed an interest in helping the lower classes. The balance between the two philosophies allowed the Han to stay in power longer than a dynasty that relied too heavily on one school of thought.