specific cancers and nursing interventions

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 9 months ago by Akosua_Ruby
7 views
updated 9 months ago by Akosua_Ruby
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

the ABCDE rule for all types of skin cancer

  • Asymmetry
  • Border irregularity
  • Color changes
  • Diameter (6mm)
  • Evolving in appearance
2

the color of a mole should be what?

tan, brown, or black. any other color change should alarming

3

risk factor for skin cancer

  • fair skin (blonde or red hair; blue or green eyes)
  • chronic sun exposure, indoor tanning booths
  • family Hx
  • exposure to tar or arsenic
  • environmental risks
4

what are some environmental risk for skin cancer

  • living closer to equator
  • outdoor occupations
  • frequent outdoor activities
5

why are dark skin less susceptible to skin cancer? can they still get it?

  • more melanin which serves as sunscreen
  • they can still get skin cancer in the lighter areas of their bodies
6

types of non-melanoma skin cancer

sun exposed areas (face, neck, hands, arms)

  • actinic keratosis
  • basal cell carcinoma
  • squamous cell carcinoma
7

characteristics of actinic keratosis

  • precancerous lesion
  • flat or elevated, scaly, papule
8

basal cell carcinoma

  • most common, least deadly
  • rarely metastasizes beyond skin
  • enlarging papule, pearly border, erosion, ulcer
9

squamous cell carcinoma

  • scaly erythematous plaque, nodules, lesion, ulceration
  • less common, high aggressive
  • potential for metastasis and death if not treated early
10

what can lead to squamous cell carcinoma around the mouth and lips

pipes, cigars, cigarette smoking

11

most common site for a malignant melanoma to occur in males and females

  • males: back and chest
  • females: back and legs
12

malignant melanoma can occur____

  • anywhere on skin
  • also in eyes, GI tract, mucous membrane, lymph nodes
  • genetic predisposition
13

metastasis and incidence of malignant melanoma

  • can metastasize to any organ
  • incidence and death much higher among whites
14

treatment of skin cancer depends on what

the site of original tumors, stage of cancer, and patient's age and health

15

characteristics of laryngeal cancer

  • neoplasm occurring in the larynx
  • most commonly squamous cell in origin
  • more common in males between (55-70)
16

what are some activities that put you at risk for laryngeal cancer

  • prolonged use of alcohol and tobaccos
  • vocal straining
  • chronic laryngitis
  • family predisposition
  • industrial exposure to carcinogen
  • nutritional deficiencies
17

what are the early signs of laryngeal cancer

  • hoarseness or change in vocal quality lasting > 2 weeks
18

what are the late signs of laryngeal cancer

dysphagia, dyspnea, weight loss

19

what are some other clinical manifestation of laryngeal cancer

  • color changes of mouth and tongue
  • sore throat, neck pain radiating to ear, hemoptysis
  • swelling or lump in neck
20

Dx test for laryngeal cancer

  • indirect laryngoscopy, biopsy
  • CT, MRI, PET scan
21

what should you consider or think about when you're giving radiation to a patient for laryngeal cancer?

nutrition and airway

22

collaborative care of laryngeal cancer includes

  • radiation and chemotherapy
  • surgery
23

hemilaryngectomy is the removal of

one side of the larynx

24

supraglottic laryngectomy is the removal of what organs

cords and epiglottis. worry about communication

25

supracricoid laryngectomy is the removal of what organs

cords and thyroid

26

total laryngectomy is the removal of what organs

the whole larynx area

27

what is the post op care with a total laryngectomy?

  • tracheostomy care and suctioning. secretions may be blood-tinged at first
  • tube feedings
  • alternative communication methods
28

what are some alternative communication methods after a laryngectomy?

  • electrolarynx: external battery powered device
  • transesophageal puncture: fistula between esophagus and trachea. block stoma to speak
29

what is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths? what is the most important risk factor?

  • lung cancer
  • smoking
30

types of non-small cell lung cancer

  • squamous cell
  • adenocarcinoma
  • large cell
31

squamous cell

  • slow growing. Slow growing tumor in bronchiole tubes. Tumor clamped in bronchiole tube. Early symptoms because of where it’s located. Doesn’t metastasize.
32

adenocarcinoma

moderate growing. Don’t have symptoms until widespread because it being peripherally located. Don’t respond to chemo. Not related to smoking

33

large cell

Least common, highly metastatic, large and usually in multiple places. Not good for surgery because of its multiple location. High recurrence

34

characteristics of small cell lung cancer

  • very rapid growing, airways obstructions in whole lungs
  • most aggressive type of lung cancer; worst prognosis
35

what is the most common manifestation of lung cancer

persistent cough with sputum

36

what other clinical manifestation of lung cancer is there

dyspnea, wheezing, chest pain, hemoptysis

37

diagnostic test for lung cancer

  • biopsy!!!!
  • X-ray, CT, bronchoscopy
38

what are the screening guidelines for lung cancers

  • 55-74 yrs of age
  • in fairly good health
  • a pack a day for 30yrs
  • still smoking or quit smoking in last 15yrs
39

what are some collaborative care for lung cancer

surgery, chemotherapy, radiation

40

what are some health promotion for lung cancer

  • avoid smoking
  • promote smoking cessation programs
41

acute intervention for lung cancer

  • support during diagnostic evaluation
  • nutritional evaluation
  • comfort, pain control
  • adequate oxygen of tissues
  • realistic attitude toward treatment and prognosis
42

what are some risk factors for cervical cancer

  • low SES
  • early sexual activity
  • multiple sex partners
  • HPV 16 and 18
  • immunocompromised
  • smoking
43

what are the clinical manifestations of cervical cancer

asymptomatic until late invasiveness.

  • leukorrhea, bleeding, foul smelling discharge
44

what is a late sign of cervical cancer

lower back pain due to tumor putting pressure on lower back

45

when should you begin screening for cervical cancer

  • begin at 21 and a Pap smear every 3 years
  • at age 30-65, pap every 3yrs and HPV every 5yrs
  • stop screening >65 if no cancerous lesions last 20yrs
46

diagnostic tests of cervical cancer

  • Pap smear
  • colposcopy and biopsy if any abnormality
47

collaborative care of cervical cancer

  • HPV vaccine for prevention
  • laser, cryotherapy
  • ionization
  • radiation, chemo, hysterectomy
48

what is the most common GYN cancer?

  • endometrial cancer. slow growing
  • low mortality rate
49

what are some risk factor for endometrial cancer

  • increased estrogen
  • age
  • late menopause
  • nulliparity
  • obesity, smoking, DM
  • HNPCC
50

what are some clinical manifestations of endometrial cancer

  • abnormal uterine bleeding
  • pain: late sign
  • S&S r/t metastasis
51

diagnostic test for endometrial cancer

US, endometrial biopsy

52

collaborative care for endometrial cancer include

  • total hysterectomy
  • bilateral salphyngoophrectomy
  • lymph node dissection
  • radiation
53

what is the collaborative care for an advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer

progesterone and chemotherapy

54

risk factors for ovarian cancer

  • family history
  • gene mutations
  • great number of ovulatory cycles
  • HRT
  • infertility drugs
  • age
  • high fat diet
55

what are some activities that reduce risk for ovarian cancer

  • oral contraceptives
  • multiple pregnancies
  • breast feeding
56

what are the clinical manifestations of ovarian cancer

  • early signs are vague
  • report if
    • pelvic or abdominal pain
    • bloating
    • urinary urgency or frequency
    • difficulty eating or early satiety
57

late clinical manifestation of ovarian cancer

pain, B&B dysfunction, ascites, menstrual irregularities, weight loss or gain

58

diagnostic test for ovarian cancer

  • yearly pelvic exam, OVA1
  • US (abdominal or transvaginal)
  • exploratory laparotomy
59

collaborative care for ovarian cancer

  • total hysterectomy and bilateral salphygoophrectomy
  • tumor debunking
  • radiation and chemo
  • "second look"
60

what are some risk factors for breast cancer

  • family history
  • genetics
  • age
  • nulliparity
  • weight gain
61

types of breast cancer

  • ductal and lobular carcinoma
  • inflammatory breast cancer
  • paget's disease
62

inflammatory breast cancer

  • aggressive, rapid growing, high risk of metastasis, poor prognosis
63

S/S of inflammatory breast cancer

  • redness, warmth, swelling, orange peel skin
  • mass may or may not be present
64

paget's disease

  • nipple or areola lesion with or without breast mass
  • good prognosis if confined to nipple
65

S/S of Paget's disease

itching, burning, nipple discharge (bloody)

66

clinical manifestations of breast cancer

  • palpable lump
  • abnormal mammogram
  • nipple discharge and retraction
  • orange peel breast skin appearance
67

why is breast self exam not reliable? where is the sentinel nodes located

  • because the tumor would've have been growing for at least 2yrs by the time they find a lump
  • sentinel nodes are closer to tumor than axillary
68

diagnostic test for breast cancer

  • mammogram, breast US, MRI
  • biopsy
  • sentinel/axillary lymph node dissection
  • estrogen and progesterone receptor + -
69

what does cancer cells depend on to grow? what can be done if estrogen and progesterone receptors are either + or -

  • cancer cells depend on hormones to grow
  • if hormones are +, you can give medications to alter hormones. they grow faster
  • if negative, it doesn't need hormones to grow so it is harder to stop
70

collaborative care for breast cancer

  • surgery
  • radiation, chemo
  • hormonal therapy
  • biologic and targeted therapy
71

types of surgery for breast cancer

  • SLND, ALND
  • breast conservative surgery (lumpectomy)
  • modified radical mastectomy
72

a TRAM is not a good option for what type of people

not good option for thin or people who smoke or without good blood supply/

73

what should you worry about after a TRAM?

worry about circulation. make sure the area that was relocated has good circulation and continue to have good circulation

74

adverse effects of breast cancer surgical therapy

  • lymphedema
  • postmastectomy pain syndrome
75

what are the S/S and the treatment for lymphedema?

  • redness, edema, pressure
  • compression stockings, antibiotics, arm elevation and exercise
76

what are some nursing implementations after a breast cancer surgical therapy

  • make them brush or comb hair
  • draw circles with finger in the air
  • running fingers up and down walls
  • monitor output and empty drain
77

what should you not do to the arm after breast cancer surgical therapy

NO BPs, venipuncture, injections on affected arm